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Technically Speaking: From Keratin Regulation Through Wet Wipes Emulsion Literature Findings

Contact Author Charles Fox, Independent Consultant
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Skin and Skin Care
Regulating keratinous tissue: The Procter & Gamble Company has been issued a patent regarding methods for identifying materials that can help to regulate the condition of mammalian keratinous tissue.1 The patent describes methods for identifying materials to help regulate keratin in skin, hair or nails, and the use of said materials, such as in the preparation of cosmetic compositions.

The methods can also be used to generate data to support marketing and advertising claims, and to provide irritation or safety information. For example, the treatment of human epidermis with 0.5%, 1.0% or 2% n-acetylglucosamine was found to increase the expression of hyaluronic acid and procollagen-1 biomarkers in a dose-responsive manner, compared to the control. Both of these responses correspond to projected antiaging facial benefits.

Skin barrier cosmetics: Pola Chemical Industries discloses skin barrier cosmetics containing N-acylglutamicacid diesters, phytosterol glycosides and optional hyaluronic acid salt.2

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The company developed the cosmetics to complement UV-damaged skin for use during summer months. Thus, a one-week application of a makeup base containing phytosteryl/octyldodecyl/lauroyl glutamate and phytosterol glycoside to UV-induced rough skin of volunteers significantly decreased TEWL.

Emodin for collagen synthesis promotion: Biospectrum Inc. discloses an antiwrinkle composition comprised of emodin, an orange crystalline compound, C14H4O2(OH)3CH3, obtained from rhubarb and other plants, to inhibit collagen degradation and promote collagen synthesis.3 The composition: stimulates cell regeneration by promoting the synthesis of collagen by normal fibroblasts; alleviates wrinkles; and imparts the skin with elasticity. Emodin was found to increase the synthesis of collagen in human normal fibroblasts and to induce the proliferation of human normal fibroblasts in a concentration-dependent manner. An example of such a cosmetic cream is shown in Formula 1.

Skin benefits of hydroxy-matairesinol: Beiersdorf discloses the use of hydroxymatairesinol for the improvement of skin tightening including the treatment and prevention of cellulite.4 An example is shown in Formula 2.

The company also obtained a patent for the use of hydroxymatairesinol as the active substance in skin care compositions for blemished skin and mild acne.5 An example of an o/w gel for blemished skin is shown in Formula 3.

Hair and Hair Care

Smoothing hair shampoo: Unileverdiscloses conditioning shampoo compositions comprised of an anionic cleansing surfactant, a cationic polymer and nonionic silicone microparticles.6 An aqueous shampoo composition is disclosed that is formulated with 2–40% w/w of an anionic cleansing surfactant, 0.01–5% w/w of a cationic polymer, and 0.01–10% w/w of an insoluble nonionic silicone with emulsified particles averaging from 0.06 μmto 0.14 μm. An example is shown in Formula 4. This composition was found to deliver hair smoothness and ease of combing. 

Hair lightening and color removal: Henkel recently issued a patent that discloses hair-lightening formulations.7 The described hair lightening formulation has a pH value >7 and contains an alkaline medium in place of ammonia, a mixture of selected imidazole derivatives, and a selected alkanolaminemonoethanolamine, monoisopropanolamine, 2-amino-2-methylpropanol, 2-amino-2-ethyl-1, 3-propanediol and 2-amino-2-methyl-butanol. The formulation provides a high-blonding effect and a high stability. Since the formulation does not contain ammonia, no malodor is emitted during hair bleaching. An example is shown in Formula 5.

The company also discloses a method for the removal of dyes from hair and skin using a thionite reducing agent.8 The effect of the reducing agent is increased by irradiation with visible light. Aldehydes and ketones can be added to the compositions. Model hair was dyed with a hair cream containing p-toluylendiamine and resorcin, followed by the dye removal composition including 10.0% sodium dithionite, phosphoric acid to pH 1.5, and qs to 100% with water.

Oxidizing agent for hair color: Tagasako International Corp. discloses an oxidizing agent for hair treatments.9 The agent contains 3–15% peroxide or persulfate and 0.05–2% perfume containing 0.5–100% of olfactive matters having at least an ester function, and 0–95% in olfactive matters having at least an alpha, beta unsaturated ketone function. The olfactive matters are stable in the presence of peroxide. Finally, the agent contains 0.1–5% solubilizing agent and 0.005–2% sequestrant. The cosmetic composition is used for the coloring or discoloration of the hair. An example formulated at pH 3.0 is shown in Formula 6.

Coloring keratin fiber: Wella AG discloses a patent application for dye-containing pellets that color keratin fiber.10 The pellets are obtained either through the homogeneous mixing of a starting material containing at least one natural or synthetic dye with a suitable carrier material and coating the material with a suitable encapsulation material, or coating a suitable carrier material with a mixture of at least one natural or synthetic dye and at least one suitable encapsulation material. 

The application relates to the use of said pellets to increase the shine of the keratin fibers, reduce the scalp coloring of hair dyes, improve the protection for the cortex, increase the colorant efficiency and reduce the load of colorants, and improve wash resistance. Thus, a mixture was prepared containing 381.2 g of 4-(2-hydroxyethylamino)-3-nitrophenol,101.0 g of 2-[(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]-4,6-dinitrophenol, and 100.0 g of corn starch. In a fluidized bed granulator and coatera, the above mixture was heated to 34°C with air at an incoming air temperature of 90°C and an air flow rate of 18 m3/h. A 20% aqueous solution of polyvinylpyrrolidone was then sprayed onto this mixture at an initial spraying rate of 8 g/min and at a spraying air pressure of 0.5 bar. In the course of the granulation process, the spraying rate was increased to 12 g/min and the incoming air temperature was increased to 100°C, while the air flow rate was raised to a maximum of 30 m3/h. The product temperature was kept at approximately 30–31°C throughout the entire procedure. After 310 g had been sprayed, the pellets were dried at a maximum product temperature of 57°C, cooled to about 30 °C and screened. 


Sunscreen compositions: Shiseido Co., Ltd., describes a new emulsified w/o sunscreen composition exhibiting an excellent UV-shielding effect and stability against deterioration odor that can develop over time.11 Specifically disclosed is an emulsified w/o composition containing 0.2–10% of octocrylene, 0.2–30% titanium dioxide or zinc oxide subjected to a hydrophobilizing treatment, 0.02–8% of phenylbenzimidazole sulfonic acid, a neutralizing agent for the phenylbenzimidazole sulfonic acid, and, if necessary, 0.01–20% of a silicone surface active agent. 

The company also discloses w/o emulsion type sunscreen preparations containing titanium dioxide or zinc oxide.12 The sunscreen preparations are said to exert excellent UV screening effects that are effective in long-term discoloration resistance and stability. The preparation is characterized by containing 1–30% of hydrophobized titanium oxide or zinc oxide, 0.1–10% of phenylbenzimidazolesulfonic acid, triethanolamine in an amount of 50% or above based on the phenylbenzimidazolesulfonic acid, 0.1–10% of trimethylsiloxysilicic acid and, if necessary, 0.01–20% of a silicone surfactant. 

Sunscreen safety and efficacy: Bioderm Research has been issued a patent on sunscreen safety and efficacy enhancement with manganese heterocyclic base complexes via urocanate pathway.13 The invention discloses a method for topical application of said complexes, which causes: the reduction of topical peroxide including hydrogen peroxide; reduced topical inflammation including sunburn; increased sun protection of skin; the reduction of skin wrinkles;  comprehensive protection from UVA, UVB and UVC; and reduction of radiation-initiated inflammation. Thus, 1.9% manganese (II) urocanate was prepared from 1.73% manganese (II) acetate, 1.38% urocanic acid, 0.40% sodium hydroxide and water to 100%. 

UV filter capsules: A Merck GmbH patent discloses UV filter capsules including an amino-substituted hydroxybenzophenone14 to produce cosmetic or dermatological formulations and pre-formulations. The company also describes the method for producing such formulations comprised of the capsules. 

The capsules were prepared with a solution containing 33.5 g diethylamino hydroxybenzoyl hexyl benzoate, 66.5 g di-butyl adipate and 17.7 g tetra-ethylorthosilicate. The solution was emulsified with a surfactant solution containing 58.2 g water and 0.69 g cetyltrimethyl ammonium chloride. The emulsion then was added to a hydrochloric acid aqueous solution where the ethanol formed during hydrolysis of the alkylsilane was removed by distillation. The pH of the residue was set at 3.8–4.0 with a sodium citrate solution. 

Finally, the active substance content of the suspension was set to 50% with water for use in sunscreen formulations, or the suspension was spray-dried for the isolation of silica capsules for use in formulations. 


Unifying skin tone: Cantwell and Epstein disclose cosmetic compositions of acrylic polymer-coated pigments and reflective particles intended to obtain a uniform skin tone. The study also reveals methods of making and using the compositions.15 These compositions are said to mask skin imperfections and provide more uniform skin tone. The compositions can be formulated to address the needs of users having a specific skin tone. The compositions include one or more pigments such as iron oxides and may also include reflective particles such as mica coated with iron oxide and/or titanium dioxide. The compositions can be o/w emulsions formulated with a discontinuous oil phase dispersed in a continuous aqueous phase. The compositions can also include emollients, one or more skin sheen additives, a film former such as polycyclopentadiene and isohexadecane. Compositions formulated for lighter skin tones can include one or more sunscreen agents. The compositions can be formulated to have high color transfer resistance. Methods of making the compositions and methods of treatment for applying the compositions to the skin are also described. A composition for medium skin tones is shown in Formula 7.

Cosmetic powder concealer: Pola Chemical Industries has received a patent for a fibrous substance containing cosmetic powders for uniform concealing effect.16 The powders also contain polyoxyalkylene-me polysiloxane copolymers. Thus, a powder foundation containing a hollow prism-shaped TiO2 nylon fiber and a mixture of poly (oxyethylene-oxypropylene)-me siloxane copolymer and decamethyl-cyclopentasiloxane was applied to volunteers with a puff to show uniform dispersion of the fibers on the skin. The cosmetic also resulted in a natural transparent finish. 

Interesting Vehicles

Xanthan and polyglucomannan polysaccharide stabilizers: Croda International PLC and Uniqema Chemie have disclosed emulsification systems, o/w emulsions comprising xanthan and polyglucomannan polysaccharide stabilizers, and wet wipes containing such emulsions.17 A method of making an o/w emulsion is described in which an oil emulsifier and a polysaccharide emulsion stabilizer such as xanthan gum is dispersed in the oil. 

The oil-based dispersion formed is then combined with water, preferably at a low temperature and under low shear conditions, to form an o/w emulsion. The polysaccharide emulsion stabilizer and optional oil emulsifier may be dispersed directly into a polar oil to form the oil-based dispersion or into a polar nonaqueous liquid medium, which is mixed with the oil before it is combined with the water to form the emulsion. 

The o/w emulsions are particularly useful in personal care and cosmetic applications such as sprays, body moisturizers, sunscreens and wet wipes. Thus, emulsions were made by adding glycerol 1.0%, 4.0 g, or propylene glycol 1.0%, 

4.0 g, to steareth 100 (and) steareth-2 (and) sucrose (and) mannan (and) xanthan gum 0.3%, 1.2 g. Emollient oil consisting of a mixture of triethylhexanoin 1.5%, 6.0 g, isopropyl isostearate 1.5%, 6.0 g, was then added to the mixture. Finally, water at 95.4%, 381.6 g, was added slowly to form an o/w emulsion. The viscosity of the emulsion after 24 h was 1816 mPas, and the stability was over one month.

Ascorbic acid derivatives: Haba Laboratories discloses cosmetic emulsions containing a high level of ascorbic acid derivatives.18 This invention relates to stable w/o emulsions containing ascorbic acid derivatives that have a suitable viscosity for application without stickiness. The emulsions are formulated with ascorbic acid derivatives, liquid cyclic dimethylsiloxane and polysaccharide fatty acid esters and have a viscosity of 0.5-100 Pas. An example is shown in Formula 8.


1. US 2007 196,344, Methods for identifying materials that can help regulate the condition of mammalian keratinous tissue, The Procter & Gamble Co.(Aug 23, 2007)

2. JP 2007 210,893, Skin barrier cosmetics containing N-acylglutamic acid diesters and phytosterol glycosides, Pola Chemical Industries Inc. (Aug 23, 2007)

3. WO 2007 94,533, Composition comprising emodin for inhibiting collagen degradation and promoting collagen synthesis, Biospectrum Inc. (Aug 23, 2007)

4. DE 102,006,008,730, Use of hydroxymatairesinol for improvement of skin tightening, Beiersdorf AG (Aug 23, 2007)

5. DE 102,006,008,771, Use of hydroxymatairesinol as active substance in cosmetic compositions for blemished skin and mild forms of acne, Beiersdorf AG (Aug 23, 2007)

6. WO 2007 96,046, Conditioning shampoo compositions comprising anionic cleansing surfactant, cationic polymer, and nonionic silicone microparticles, Unilever PLC, Unilever N.V., Hindustan Lever Ltd. (Aug 30, 2007)

7. DE 102,006,008,149, Hair lightening formulations, Henkel KGaA (Aug 23, 2007)

8. DE 102,006,053,343, Method for the removal of dyes from hair and skin using a thionite reducing agent, Henkel KGaA (Aug 30, 2007)

9. FR 2,897,533, Oxidizing agent for hair treatment, Tagasako International Corp. (Aug 24, 2007)

10. EP 1,820,487, Dye-containing pellets for coloring keratin fiber, Wella AG (Aug22, 2007)

11. WO 2007 97,274, Water-in-oil emulsified sunscreen cosmetic composition, Shiseido Co., Ltd. (Aug 30, 2007)

12. WO 2007 97,275, Water-in-oil emulsion type sunscreen preparations containing titania and/or zinc oxide, Shiseido Co., Ltd. (Aug 30, 2007)

13. US 2007 189,992, Sunscreen safety and efficacy enhancement with manganese heterocyclic base complexes via urocanate pathway, Bioderm Research (Aug16. 2007)

14. WO 2007 93,252, UV filter capsules comprising an amino-substituted hydroxybenzophenone, Merck Patent GmbH (Aug23. 2007)

15. US 2007 189,989, Cosmetic emulsion compositions for uniform skin tone comprising acrylic polymer-coated pigments and reflective particles, and methods of making and using the compositions, MY Cantwell and HA Epstein (Aug16, 2007)

16. JP 2007 210,894, Fibrous substance-containing cosmetic powders for uniform concealing effect, Pola Chemical Industries Inc. (Aug 23, 2007)

17. WO 2007 91,016, Emulsification systems, oil-in-water emulsions comprising Xanthan and polyglucomannan polysaccharide stabilizers, and wet wipes containing such emulsions, Croda International PLC and Uniqema Chemie B.V. (Aug 16, 2007)

18. JP 2007 204,399, Cosmetic emulsions containing ascorbic acid derivatives, Haba Laboratories Inc. (Aug16, 2007)                                  

Related Content



Fox From Keratin Regulation footnotes

 a  The Glatt Powder-Coater-Granulator is a product of the Glatt Company.

Formula 1. Cream

 Formula 1. Cream 

Formula 2. Anti-cellulite lotion

 Formula 2. Anti-cellulite lotion

Formula 3. O/W gel for blemished skin

 Formula 3. O/W gel for blemished skin

Formula 4. Conditioning shampoo

 Formula 4. Conditioning shampoo

Formula 5. Hair lightener

 Formula 5. Hair lightener

Formula 6. Oxidizing

 Formula 6. Oxidizing 

Formula 7. Uniform skin tone composition

 Formula 7. Uniform skin tone composition

Formula 8. Emulsions

Formula 8. Emulsions 

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