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Recent in Testing (page 29 of 34)
Jul 1, 2013 | Sébastien Miksa, Dominique Lutz and Céline Guy, HelioScreen Labs
This work evaluates the impact of temperature on test substrate surfaces during the application, spreading and drying steps of the in vitro method to measure ultraviolet (UV) transmission. The authors work in a range between 20°C and 35°C, and demonstrate that controlling temperature is a key test parameter that should be strictly controlled to ensure reliability.
Jun 25, 2013 | Kwangsuk Joo, Ongsoo Kim, Heonsik Kim and Jeungyeun Yoon, Hyechon College; and Jeongrim Ahn, Junkee Jang and Jaeun Song, Cosmetic Association
This study describes methods used in a Korean study to calculate consumer exposure to lipstick and face creams. The average amount applied daily was estimated and compared with data collected by weighing containers before and after use. The data collected was 1.8 to 1.6 times greater than the estimate, so although the survey represented real use patterns, the actual data was more accurate.
Jun 25, 2013 | Kathleen A. Martin, PhD, McCrone Associates Inc.
Particulate contamination and discoloration may occur in products due to foreign materials introduced via raw materials or during the manufacturing process. Agglomeration or reactions between ingredients and packaging components also are possible sources. The identification of contaminants and their origin, described here, is therefore critical so that future incidents can be prevented and safety or regulatory concerns can be addressed.
Jun 20, 2013 | Hongbo Zhai, MD, and Howard I. Maibach, MD, University of California
The present study uses an evaporimeter to measure the degree of water loss from in vitro skin samples covered by occlusive and semi-occlusive wound dressings to serve as a model for determining the effectiveness of occlusive cosmetic formulations. The purpose of this work was to develop a model for determining the effectiveness of occlusive cosmetic formulations.
Jun 19, 2013 | Katie Schaefer, Cosmetics & Toiletries magazine
To support finished product or raw material claims these two in vitro methods—the Affymetrix microarray and the Taqman Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)—measure the up-regulation or down-regulation of genes.
Jun 19, 2013 | Hongbo Zhai, MD, University of California; and Howard I. Maibach, MD, University of California School of Medicine
The present study utilized an in vitro model to compare the decontamination capacity of three model decontaminant solutions: tap water, isotonic saline and hypertonic saline. Human cadaver skin samples were dosed with radio-labeled [14C]-formaldehyde and the surface skin of each sample was washed after each exposure with one of the three model decontaminant solutions.
Jun 14, 2013 | Katie Schaefer, Cosmetics & Toiletries magazine
Noninvasive subcutaneous skin imaging is a tool sought for use by the medical, pharmaceutical and personal care industries, but techniques have been lacking due to resolution and speed constraints.
Jun 13, 2013 | Marc Pissavini and Olivier Doucet, Coty-Lancaster; and Olivier Brack, Statistique Industrielle KHI2 Consulting (KSIC)
Methods for determining SPF in vivo are based on a biological response by human skin. To overcome intrinsic variation in these methods, large numbers of volunteers and statistics are required; however, these concepts are often poorly understood or worse, misinterpreted. This article discusses how these values should be interpreted and explains what they mean to formulators.
Jun 11, 2013 | Paul G. McCormick, University of Western Australia
A sunscreen layer’s thickness is critical to its SPF. However, current regulations specify a mass application rate for testing, rather than a volumetric application rate. This significantly underrates the SPF values of mineral sunscreens due to their higher densities since, compared with their relative organic counterparts, thinner films are being tested, as will be shown here.
May 31, 2013 | Mihaela Gorcea and Donna Laura, International Specialty Products (ISP)
This study assesses the physicochemical properties of four known cosmetic emollient esters in vitro to predict their sensorial benefits and correlate their properties with in vivo sensory attributes. This evaluation serves as a guide to selecting specific emollient esters for various cosmetic applications and to predicting their sensory attributes.
May 31, 2013 | Olga Freis and Dominique Gauché, Laboratoires Sérobiologiques division of Cognis; and Ute Griesbach and Hans-Martin Haake, Cognis
The present study uses confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy to assess the penetration of protein hydrolyzates into hair. While higher amounts of protein were found in the cuticle, still significant quantities were observed in the cortical parts of hair, and this penetration was enhanced by longer incubation times.
May 31, 2013 | Remona Gopaul,*† Helen Knaggs, PhD,* and R. Randall Wickett, PhD†, *Nu Skin Enterprises, †College of Pharmacy, University of Cincinnati
Genomics assists product developers in understanding the expression of specific genes and their relationship to particular skin attributes. This article reviews commonly used testing techniques, such as DNA microarray, RT-PCR, SAGE, northern blot and RNA sequencing, and describes their application in testing the effects of cosmetic ingredients and products on skin.