This month’s survey of recent patent and research literature describes moneymaking ideas for personal care product development including the influence of filaggrin on skin moisture, lotus extract for anticellulite and orange roughy oil for sensitive skin, among others.
Skin and Skin Care
Filaggrin’s role in skin moisture: Kezic et al. have reported that loss-of-function mutations in the filaggrin gene lead to a reduced level of natural moisturizing factor (NMF) in the stratum corneum (SC).1 Since filaggrin (FLG) is the precursor protein for amino acid-derived components of the NMF, the researchers hypothesized that genetic carriers of FLG-null mutations would show reduced levels of NMF in the SC.
A reference spectrum of NMF was first constructed by superimposing the spectra of pyrrolidone-5-carboxylic acid, ornithine, serine, proline, glycine, histidine and alanine. The researchers then screened 149 participants and 10 atopic dermatitis (AD) patients for four FLG mutations, including R501X, 2282del4, R2447X and S3247X. The study, including 16 carriers of an FLG mutation, was divided into one group of 12 female and four male participants, and another group of 23 individuals with wild type in respect to these mutations, broken into 15 female and eight male participants. Of the 16 mutation carriers, five were heterozygous for R5O1X, eight were heterozygous for 2282del4, and one was heterozygous for R2447X. The mean age of the carrier group was 33 years, comparable with that of non-carriers, with a mean age of 30.
The prevalence of AD history and active AD was found to be higher in carriers of an FLG mutation. Further, all carriers and 11 non-carriers reported dry skin. The study demonstrated that carriers of FLG-null mutations had significantly reduced levels of NMF in the SC and that FLG carriers with a history of AD had significantly lower NMF levels than non-carriers with a history of AD (P < 0.0001). In addition to reduced levels of NMF, carriers of FLG mutations showed higher transepidermal water loss than non-carriers.
Antioxidant compositions: The Lion Corp. has disclosed antioxidants containing carotenes, tocopherols or tocotrienol and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), in addition to compositions containing them.2 The antioxidants, which inhibit the formation of lipid peroxides and prevent the formation of wrinkles, contain palm oil carotenes, lycopene and/or lutein; tocopherol and/or tocotrienol; and CoQ10 as active ingredients. A composition containing 39% w/w palm oil carotene, 8% tocotrienol, 32% tocopherol and 1% CoQ10 mmol/L showed 78% inhibition of lipid peroxide formation from linoleic acid in the presence of a radical generator in vitro. Soft capsules were formulated.
Proteoglycan photoaging inhibitors: Narisu Cosmetic Co., Ltd. introduced skin photoaging inhibitors containing proteoglycan-related substances, such as d-glucosamine-HCl, N-acetyl-d-glucosamine, d-xylose and sodium chondroitin sulfate, and cosmetics incorporating them.3 A milky lotion containing 2.00% w/w N-acetyl-d-glucosamine significantly increased decorin and decreased the area of UVB-induced wrinkles in hairless mice.
Composition for oily skin: Kosei Co., Ltd. disclosed an oily skin composition that contains gamma-oryzanol and N-acyl glutamic acid diesters,4 and wherein one compound contained is represented by the general formula: R1CONHCH(COOR2)CH2CH2COOR3 where R1 = C7-17 hydrocarbon; and R2 and R3 = C3-30 hydrocarbon; and wherein at least one compound is cholesteryl or phytosteryl. The composition showed improved storage stability of gamma-oryzanol and provided a fresh feeling on the skin without causing stickiness. An example is shown in Formula 1.
Improving stress with sweet orange oil: Shiseido Co., Ltd. used sweet orange oils, including orris oil and neroli oil, to improve stress response in cosmetics.5 Formulation examples of creams, gels, shampoos, foods and cosmetic preparations were given.
Lotus extract for anticellulite activity: Lenaers et al. describe a three-pronged approach to reduce cellulite, including targeting fat storage, inflammationmation and adipose tissue degradation.6 Silab has developed a lotus extract that provides anticellulite activity in these three areas. Research shows the extract reduces fat storage in mature adipocytes by activating lipolysis and inhibiting pre-adipocyte differentiation into mature adipocytes through the action of SIRT-1—a calorie restriction gene that limits the adipogenesis process. The extract also limits inflammation of adipose tissue by promoting the synthesis of adiponectin, an anti-inflammatory molecule; and finally, it preserves the adipose connective tissue by limiting its degradation.
Hair and Hair Care
Hair growth-promoting composition: Rath et al. disclose a composition and method for the promotion of hair growth on a mammal.7 The composition—including lysine, proline, arginine, an ascorbic compound, polyphenols, calcium, magnesium, N-acetyl-cysteine, selenium, copper and manganese—was administered to a mammal and found to promote hair growth at certain levels.
The life cycle of melanocytes: Shinpou et al. have reviewed controlling the life cycle of human melanocytes by paracrine factors.8 Hyperpigmentation and uneven pigmentation are cosmetic skin disorders that result from the aberrant proliferation and activation of melanocytes. To shed new light on the treatment of these disorders, an understanding of the life cycle of melanin-producing melanocytes would be of interest.
The life cycle of melanocytes includes several steps, beginning with the birth of undifferentiated precursor cells called melanoblasts followed by their maturation to fully differentiated melanocytes, their proliferation and activation, and their eventual death. This process is not fully understood in terms of identification of the precursor cells and the paracrine and intrinsic factors that regulate progress through the life cycle.
In order to identify such factors in vitro, the use of a completely defined culture medium has a major advantage. Researchers in the present study developed a normal melanocyte culture system based on a serum-free, chemically-defined medium to examine the in vitro effects of various paracrine factors on the life cycle of melanocytes with particular attention to their proliferation, activation and cell death.
Facultative skin pigmentation: Jimbow has reviewed aging and skin pigmentation including molecular targets for management.9 Skin lightening for antiaging has recently become a large segment of the personal care industry, particularly for ethnic skin.
Skin pigmentation consists of two basic forms: a constitutive skin pigmentation, which reflects genetic skin color; and facultative skin pigmentation that is acquired from senescence and environmental exposure. Abnormal skin pigmentation associated with aging deals primarily with the facultative form, which reflects alterations of an epidermal melanin unit (EMU). The EMU defines the symbiotic interaction of a melanocyte and its associated pool of keratinocytes.
Thus, molecular targets for skin pigmentation associated with aging should be focused on mechanisms related to the EMU. There are three basic approaches. The first is the melanin/melanosome exfoliation process, which can be subdivided into exfoliation of horny-layered cells, accelerated growth of these cells, and their water and sebum content. The second is the transfer and degradation of melanin/melanosomes, which concerns molecules affecting the growth and differentiation of either melanocytes, keratinocytes or both. The third target are the molecules responsible for melanin and melanosome biosynthesis.
The step-by-step dissection of each of these processes should provide improved or novel management of aging-related facultative skin pigmentation.
Photostable UV absorber: Shiseido Company Ltd. has disclosed sunscreens including dibenzoylmethane derivatives in combination with alkyl diphenylacrylate and benzalmalonate derivatives10 that do not hinder the photostabilizing effect of the dibenzoylmethane derivatives. The composition is an effective UV absorber across a wide wavelength range, from UVA to UVB. Specifically, the composition contains a dibenzoylmethane derivative; an alkyl beta, beta-diphenylacrylate and/or an alpha-cyano-beta, beta-diphenylacrylate (for example, octocrylene); and a specific benzalmalonate derivative; for example, di-(2-ethylhexyl)-4-methoxybenzalmalonate.
Broad-spectrum UV filter: Herzog et al. review the development of broad-spectrum UV filters for cosmetic applications.11 Modern sunscreens must protect against both UVB and UVA radiation. This requires UVB absorbers as well as photostable UVA or broad-spectrum UV filters. Bis-ethylhexyloxyphenol methoxyphenyltriazine (BEMT)a is a hydroxy-phenyl-triazine derivative that is designed for optimal spectral performance and solubility in cosmetic oils. Due to its molecular structure, the material exhibits a UV spectrum with two absorption peaks, indicating broad-spectrum protection even at the low concentration of 2%. It also exhibits efficacious photostability based on rapid photo-tautomerization, recognized by a change in molecular configuration brought about with exposure to UV.
The material can efficiently stabilize photo-labile UV filters such as T-butylmethoxydibenzoylmethane or ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate. Furthermore, it shows a synergistic effect on SPF with commonly used UVB filters as well as with bis-benzotriazolyl tetramethylbutylphenol.b
Makeup Makeup remover stick: Kosei Co., Ltd. has developed a makeup remover stick containing solid fats of a melting point ≥ 70°C, di-C14-15 alkyl carbonates, and powders.12 The remover is said to feel soft to the touch and leave no sticky residue after use. A combination of polyethylene waxc, ethylene/propylene copolymerd, C14-15 dialkyl carbonatee, petrolatumf, polymethyl methacrylateg, silicah, tocopherol acetate, propylparaben and polyglyceryl-2 triisostearatej showed effective removal of mascara.
Two-phase aqueous cosmetics: Kao Corp. has created two-phase aqueous cosmetics comprising powders coated with acrylic silicone graft copolymers, fluoro oils, water (aqua) and ethanol.13 The cosmetics are said to have efficacious redispersibility after a long storage time, and remain in two separate phases of a transparent solution layer and a powder layer while standing. An example of such a makeup base is shown in Formula 2.
Interesting Raw Materials
Plant extracts as antioxidants: Shiseido Co., Ltd. has disclosed the use of plant extracts as antioxidants, DNA damage inhibitors, and topical drugs and cosmetics.14 Plant extracts from Sarcandra glabra, Saraca dives, Cudrania pubescens, Taxodium distichum, Ludwigia octovalis, Deutzianthus tonkinensis, Alchornea trewioides, Berchemia polyphylla, Glochidion puberum and Sassafras tzumu are claimed to act as antioxidants, UV-induced DNA damage inhibitors, topical drugs and cosmetics. Formulation examples of creams, gels, cosmetic preparations and health drinks are presented.
Orange roughy oil for sensitive skin: Yamanouchi et al. review the properties of highly purified orange roughly oil, a marine-derived wax ester, for its physicochemical properties and effects on human skin, for application in cosmetics.15 The oil posseses a fatty acid composition that is more like human skin than jojoba wax. The stability of the oil during storage was found to be similar to olive oil and jojoba wax. From a human study, the marine oil significantly improved skin condition and the moisture-maintaining ability of atopic and/or dry skin subjects. Researchers concluded that orange roughy oil is suitable for sensitive skin care.
Oily bases: Nippon Emulsion Co., Ltd. and Ajinomoto Co., Inc. disclose oily bases combining esters of amino acids with dimer diols and optional fatty acids, in addition to cosmetics or topical preparations containing them.16 The bases are said to show good storage stability, pigment dispersibility and a good feel. Thus, titanium dioxide was mixed with N-myristoyl-N-methylalaninek for 3 min and allowed to stand for 3 days without resulting precipitation. A w/o cream foundation containing the aforementioned preparation and pigments showed effective covering properties and did not irritate skin.
Oily gel compositions: Asahi Kasei Chemicals Corp. has introduced oily gel compositions.17 The described inventions contain a high amount of an oily component, a multichain polyhydrophilic compound having two or more long-chain hydrophobic groups and hydrophilic groups, a polyhydroxyl compound having two or more OH groups, a surfactant, water (aqua) and another oily component. A method to produce the oily gel composition and a method for mixing a water-containing composition to form an emulsion also are disclosed. For example, L-lysine hydrochloride was reacted with N-lauroyl-L-glutamic anhydride and neutralized with sodium hydroxide to obtain a multichain polyhydrophilic compound. A formulation containing this material is shown in Formula 3.
Transparent cosmetics: Noevir Co., Ltd. has disclosed transparent aqueous cosmetics containing oil-soluble components.18 This invention also relates to a method for manufacturing storage-stable transparent cosmetics that contain oil soluble components. The oil soluble components, such as perfumes and essential oils, are dissolved in phenoxyethanol and surfactants and water are added to obtain a stable solution. An example is shown in Formula 4.
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1. S Kezic et al., Loss-of-function mutations in the fillaggrin gene lead to reduced level of natural moisturizing factor in the stratum corneum, Journal of Investigative Dermatology 128(8) 2117–2119 (2008) (in English)
2. JP 2008 239,714, Antioxidants containing carotenes, tocopherols or tocotrienol, and coenzyme Q10, and antioxidant compositions, Lion Corp., Japan, Oct 9, 2008
3. JP 2008 195,629, Skin photoaging inhibitors containing proteoglycan-related substances, and cosmetics containing them, Narisu Cosmetic Co., Ltd., Japan, Aug 28, 2008
4. JP 2008 201,753, Skin compositions containing gamma-oryzanol and N-acyl glutamic acid diesters, Kosei Co., Ltd., Japan, Sep 4, 2008
5. JP 2008 247,894, Sweet orange oils as stress response improvers and cosmetics, Shiseido Co., Ltd., Japan, Oct 16, 2008
6. C Lenaers et al., Triple target for a high anticellulite action: fat storage, inflammation and adipose tissue degradation, Frag Jrnl 36(9) 53–58 (2008) (in Japanese)
7. US 2008 248,130, Composition and method for the promotion of hair growth on a mammal, Matthias Rath, Aleksandm Niedzwiecki and Waheed Roomi, Netherlands, Oct 9, 2008
8. T Shinpou et al., Control of life cycle of human melanocytes by paracrine factors, Frag Jrnl 36(9) 42–47 (2008) (in Japanese)
9. K Jimbow, Aging and skin pigmentation: molecular targets for management, Frag Jrnl 36(9) 17–25 (2008) (in Japanese)
10. WO 2008 102,875, Sunscreens comprising dibenzoylmethane derivatives in combination with alkyl diphenylacrylate and benzalmalonate derivative, Shiseido Company Ltd., Japan, Aug 28, 2008
11. B Herzog, et al., Development of new broad-spectrum UV filter for cosmetic application, Frag Jrnl 36(8) 72–76 (2008) (in Japanese)
12. JP 2008 195,614, Stick-type makeup removers containing solid fats, dialkyl carbonates, and powder, Kosei Co., Ltd., Japan, Aug 28, 2008
13. JP 2008 195,659, Two-phase aqueous cosmetics comprising surface-treated powders and fluoro oils, Kao Corp., Japan, Aug 28, 2008
14. JP 2008 247,854, Plant exts. as antioxidants, DNA damage inhibitors, and topical drugs and cosmetics, Shiseido Co., Ltd., Japan, Oct 16, 2008
15. S Yamanouchi et al., The properties of the marine wax ester and its effects on human skin, Frag Jrnl 36(8) 83–87 (2008) (in Japanese)
16. JP 2008 195,624, Oily bases containing esters of amino acids with dimer diols and optional fatty acids, and cosmetics or topical preparations containing them, Nippon Emulsion Co., Ltd.; Ajinomoto Co., Inc., Japan, Aug 28, 2008
17. JP 2008 195,665, Oily gel compositions containing multichain polyhydrophilic compounds, polyhydroxyl compounds, and surfactants, Asahi Kasei Chemicals Corp., Japan, Aug 28, 2008
18. JP 2008 195,676, Transparent aqueous cosmetics containing oil-soluble components, Noevir Co., Ltd., Japan, Aug 28, 2008