Evaluating Outside-in Skin Transparency and Other Literature Findings

Skin and Skin Care
Dermcidin: Readers interested in keeping up with skin physiology should read the study by Niyonsaba et al. on the human antimicrobial peptide dermicidin and its behavior in activating normal human keratinocytes.1 To protect against invading microbial pathogens, the skin has evolved various mechanisms including epithelial defenses, which mainly consist of antimicrobial proteins and peptides.

In the skin, both resident and infiltrating cells synthesize and secrete small peptides that exhibit broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against bacteria, fungi and viruses. However, it is increasingly evident that these peptides act not only as endogenous antibiotics, but also are involved in immune and/or inflammatory responses.

Dermcidin (DCD) is an isolated antimicrobial peptide produced by the eccrine sweat glands in the skin. Recently, the DCD peptides DCD-1 and DCD-1L were shown to display in vitro microbiocidal activities against bacteria and viruses, and can also trigger keratinocyte activation.

Curcumin for antiaging: Amorepacific Corp. disclosed a skin preparation containing vitamins C and D and curcumin to prevent skin damage caused by photoaging.2 The disclosed composition reduced free radicals, thus preventing increased catalase activity or water loss caused by UV radiation. The preparation is said to prevent skin damage caused by UV rays, which are the main cause of skin photoaging. In addition, it was shown to exhibit moisturizing and antiaging effects.

Resveratrol and DNA repair enzyme synergy: ELC Management LLC discloses compositions including resveratrol or a derivative thereof and at least one DNA repair enzyme, and a method to repair human skin damaged by environmental stressors such as sun exposure.3 These compositions were applied to skin and, after a period of rest, a synergistic effect was demonstrated; the OGG1 enzyme and resveratrol were found to protect cells from UVB induced toxicity. Formulations containing trisodium resveratrol triphosphate, two different repair enzymesa, b and other ingredients are disclosed.

Skin cleanser with two bead pluralities: The Dial Corp. introduced a liquid skin cleanser including beads with multiple color signals for the duration of washing and with adequate mechanical force.4 The composition includes a carrier and a plurality of beads that are entrained within the carrier. When user applies the composition and rubs their hands together, the force activates the beads and they impart perceivable tactility for a limited and predetermined duration corresponding to a minimum time period for adequate cleansing. In accordance with another embodiment of the present invention, the composition further includes a second plurality of beads to impart a perceivable change in color for a predetermined duration equal to the duration of the tactility imparted by the first beads. An example is shown in Formula 1.

Siloxane skin compositions: High Desert Pharmaceuticals Inc. revealed compositions comprising siloxane as a skin lubricant.5 The method of lubricating human skin included the following steps, in no specific order: producing a gel composition from cross-linked siloxane-polyethers, the gel being further micronized in one or more low viscosity silicone fluids; applying an effective amount of the composition to a portion of the skin surface; and moving the portion within at least a part of an elastic and flexible skin contact article. A skin lubrication gel was prepared with 250 parts polyether siloxane cross-linkedc and 750 parts decamethylcyclopentasiloxaned. The preparation was mixed in a homogenizer at 8,000 psi pressure for 1 hr at 150°F.

FGF1 for skin repair: Advangen Inc. discloses skin repair compositions including oral drugs, food additives, dietary supplements, topical drugs, quasi-drugs and cosmetics that contain plant extracts and promoters of fibroblast growth factor-1 (FGF1) and/or FGF1-like substances, in addition to a method for screening skin repair substances.6

To screen for potential skin repair substances, cells are cultured with FGF1 receptors in a media containing the test substances, and the number of live cells are measured using proliferation indexes for screening. Alternatively, skin repair substances are screened by applying a test and control material to nonhuman mammalian stratum corneum insulted by tape stripping; the amount of transdermal water evaporation is then measured and compared.

In the disclosed work, a 70% ethanol extract of Oryza sativa javanica, Tradescantia spathacea, and Alocasia odora showed EC50 values of 0.056, 0.082, and 0.079% w/v, respectively, in the a proliferation of normal human dermal fibroblastse.

Moisturization with fluorinated polymers: Saraya Co. disclosed skin protective compositions containing fluorinated polymers and polyhydric alcohols.7 The compositions showed good moisturizing and protective effects and had no stickiness and slimy texture. A composition of polyperfluoroethoxymethoxy difluoroethyl PEG phosphatef, glycerin, acrylic acid C10-30 alkyl acrylate copolymerg and water was applied to the hand prior to repeated soap washing. This composition prevented desquamation of the stratum corneum (SC).

Hair and Hair Care
Storage-stable hair color kit: Henkel AG and Co. has disclosed a storage-stable kit, comprising at least the cosmetic agents A and B (described below), for coloring keratinous fibers.8 The invention also discloses a corresponding coloring method. The components of agent A, comprised of at least one reactive carbonyl compound and at least one CH acidic compound, can be produced separately and both agents can take the form of a powder, granulate or molded bodies. Agent B contains at least one basifier in a cosmetic support and has a pH value greater than 7. The respective components are stable in storage and when mixed, produce a colorant that provides keratinous fibers with glossy, intense color.

Basification for delayed hair bleaching: Henkel Ag and Co. also revealed hair bleaching compositions with a coated basification agent for delayed activity.9 The invention involves at least one solid bleaching agent and at least one solid basification agent. The basification agent includes a solid core and is coated with a mixture of a water-insoluble organic oil that is liquid at 20°C, and a wax that is kneadable at 20°C, that melts without decomposition at 40°C, and that has a low viscosity between 50°C–90°C. The basification particles are coated in a fluidized bed apparatus. Bleaching substances are selected from the group of hydrogen peroxide adducts, alkali and ammonium persulfates and peroxidisulfates.

Nonsticky hair styling: Kao Corp. revealed nonsticky o/w hair-styling compositions that impart a light and soft texture to hair.10 These compositions contain insoluble silicone powders or organic powders, silicone oils of viscosity 1–50 mm2/s, thickening carboxy-containing polymers or their salts, and surfactants. A hair wax containing cross-linked methylpolysiloxane powderh, dimethylpolysiloxane 5 CSj, dimethylpolysiloxane 10 CSk, acrylic acid-alkyl methacrylate copolymerm, polyoxyethylene cetyl ether and polyoxyethylene lauryl ether showed good hair-styling properties and no change in appearance after one month of storage at 50°C.

Lip gloss formulation:
Coty SAS has published a lip gloss formulation with a sugar gel matrix, a gel comprised of hydrogenated polyisobutene, and a gel of fumed silica di-methyl silicate in C15-19 hydrocarbon.11 The sugar gel matrix includes stearoyl inulin and an ester or ether with the formula: R1CO2R2, where R1 is a residue of a C6-29 fatty acid and R2 is a C3-30 hydrocarbon. The ester or ether is entrapped in the stearoyl inulin sugar gel matrix.

Soybean oil in mascara: L’Oréal revealed water-based cosmetic mascara compositions with an emulsifying system comprised of a soybean oil derivative and/or a salt thereof.12 An example of a water-based mascara is shown in Formula 2.

Long-wear lip gloss: Revlon Consumer Products Corp. has patented a long-wear lip gloss comprised of styrene/acrylate copolymer.13 The invention reportedly retains gloss properties, comforts without irritation, and has staying power for up to 8 hr. An example of a long-wear lip gloss is shown in Formula 3.

Polymer composite particles with a sunscreen agent: Sunjin Chemical Co., Ltd. has disclosed polymer composite particles containing a sunscreen agent with improved stability and UV absorption and the manufacturing method for this agent.14 Circular-shaped polymer composite particles, which are a hybrid of circular-shaped polymer particles and a sunscreen agent, reportedly improve dispersion stability of particles, provide UV absorption performance, and are applicable to cosmetics. These particles were created with: 13% w/w methylmethacrylate as the radical polymerizable monomer; 1.3% ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the multifunctional cross-linking monomer; 0.2% 2,2’-azobis-2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile as the initiator; 4.5% butylmethoxydibenzoylmethane as the sunscreen agent; 0.3% polyvinyl alcohol as the dispersion stabilizer; and 80.7% ion exchange water as the solvent, with respect to 100% of total reactants. The ingredients were added to a detachable chemical reactor with an agitator. The mixed materials were emulsified and the temperature was raised to 60°C. The materials were then polymerized for 20 hr and the obtained polydisperse polymer particles were dehydrated by a decompression filter, cleansed by ethanol several times, and dried in a vacuum to form the final product.

Evaluation of outside-in skin transparency: Mochizuk et al. published a method for the outside-in evaluation of skin transparency using a colorimeter and yellow food dye.15 Many reports exist concerning skin dysfunction in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) due to impaired SC function. To examine this further, these researchers provoked skin with yellow dye and measured its color change using a colorimeter. A skin transparency index was then calculated by measuring the skin’s yellowing. Other variables of skin function, including transepidermal water loss and SC hydration, also were measured. The measurement of skin color using tartrazine showed good results and indicated a significant relationship between the skin transparency index and the AD score. The authors concluded that this method is noninvasive, safe and reliable for the evaluation of outside-in skin transparency and can demonstrate the characteristic dysfunction in the skin barrier of patients with AD.

Interesting Compositions
Transparent silicone oil emulsion: Beiersdorf AG disclosed a method for the preparation of transparent or translucent, silicone oil-containing emulsions for cosmetic use.16 A mixture of a silicone oil-containing oily phase and an aqueous phase was processed in several runs through a micromixer. The mixtures include substituted polysiloxanes, fatty alcohols, fatty acid ethoxylates, sunscreens, deodorants and surfactants. An example of a s/w emulsion is shown in Formula 4.

Fluorinated ingredients: ELC Management LLC published cosmetic compositions with perfluorinated ingredients.17 The described invention comprises at least one perfluorinated component and at least one aromatic component in which the amount of aromatic component is sufficient to compatibilize the fluorinated component in the cosmetic composition. Transfer-resistant, long-wearing or other types of cosmetic or pharmaceutical compositions containing the components and a method for matching a fluorinated component in a cosmetic composition using an aromatic component are given. Also provided are cosmetic compositions containing at least one perfluorinated amide. For example, one lipstick composition contains N-octylperfluorononamide, ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate, octocrylene and other ingredients.

Polyfluoroalkyl dimethicone polymer: Combe Inc. created pre-shave preparations with enhanced lubricity formulated with polyfluoroalkyl dimethicone polymer.18 The pre-shave composition disclosed included at least one polyfluoroalkyl dimethicone polymer, a volatile component to serve as a carrier to the polyfluoroalkyl dimethicone polymer, and a suspending agent to suspend the polyfluoroalkyl dimethicone polymer in the volatile component. An example is shown in Formula 5.

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1. F Niyonsaba et al, The human antimicrobial peptide dermicidin activates normal human keratinocytes, Brit J Dermatol 160 243–249 (2009)
2. KR 2009 11,339, Skin preparation containing vitamin C, D and curcumin for preventing skin damages caused by photo-aging, Amorepacific Corp, South Korea (Feb 2, 2009)
3. WO 2009 23,416, Cosmetic compositions comprising resveratrol and DNA repair enzyme for repairing human skin, ELC Management LLC, USA (Feb 19, 2009)
4. EP 2,027,848, Liquid skin cleanser including beads with multiple color signals of adequate wash duration with adequate mechanical force, The Dial Corp, USA (Feb 25, 2009)
5. US 2009 53,312, Compositions comprising siloxanes for a skin lubricant, High Desert Pharmaceuticals Inc, USA (Feb 26, 2009) 6. JP 2009 40,753, Skin repair compositions containing plant extracts and method for screening skin repair substances, Advangen Inc, Japan, (Feb 26, 2009)
7. JP 2009 40,759, Skin protective compositions containing fluorinated polymers and polyhydric alcohols, Saraya Co, Ltd, Japan (Feb 26, 2009)
8. WO 2009 27,237, Two component hair dye kits containing solid CH-acids and carbonyl compounds and a liquid carrier, Henkel AG and Co, KGaA, Germany (Mar 5, 2009)
9. DE 102,007,041,492, Hair bleaching compositions with coated basification agent for delayed activity, Henkel AG and Co., KgaA, Germany (Mar 5, 2009)
10. JP 2009 40,741, Nonsticky oil-in-water hair styling compositions containing insoluble silicone or organic powders, silicone oils, carboxy polymer thickeners, and surfactants, Kao Corp, Japan (Feb 26, 2009)
11. US 2009 47,229, Lip gloss, Coty SAS, France (Feb 19, 2009)
12. US 2009 53,157, Water-based cosmetic mascara compositions comprising a soybean oil derivative and/or a salt thereof, L’Oréal, France (Feb 26, 2009)
13. WO 2009 26,113, Long wear retaining gloss cosmetic composition comprising styrene/acrylate copolymer, Revlon Consumer Products Corp, USA (Feb 26, 2009)
14. US 2009 53,153, Polymer composite particles containing sunscreen agent of improved stability and UV absorption, and manufacturing method thereof, Sunjin Chemical Co, Ltd, South Korea (Feb 26, 2009)
15. H Mochizuki et al, Evaluation of out-in skin transparency using a colorimeter and food dye in patients with atopic dermatitis, Brit J Dermatol 160 972–979 (2009)
16. DE 102,007,039,007, Method for the preparation of transparent or translucent, silicone oil-containing emulsions for cosmetic use, Beiersdorf AG, Germany (Feb 19, 2009)
17. WO 2009 23,620, Cosmetic compositions with perfluorinated ingredients, ELC Management LLC, USA (Feb 19, 2009)
18. CA 2,632,302, Pre-shave preparation with enhanced lubricity comprising polyfluoroalkyl dimethicone polymer, Combe Inc, USA (Feb 21, 2009)

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