A review paper published in Scientific Research explores the utility and characteristics of extremophilic microorganism-derived carotenoids.
As explained in the article abstract, carotenoids are isoprenoid pigments used in food, pharma, cosmetics, etc., industries that act as dyes and provitamins as well as impart antioxidant, photoprotective and antimicrobial properties. In recent years, alternatives to their natural sourcing or synthesis have been sought, and microbial synthesis has emerged as an alternative route.
See related: Carotenoids, In Skin's Defense
In relation, microbes occupying hostile environments such as the semi-arid Caatinga domain in Brazil represent an interesting source as they produce carotenoids in response to oxidative stress caused by sunlight. These compounds have interesting antioxidant and photoprotective properties for cosmetics. The present article reviews these characteristics and their sources of production, industrial applicability and commercialization.
See related: Colorless Carotenoids for Anti-aging Inside and Out