BASF stabilized and optimized papain enzyme in its X-pressin (INCI: Not Provided) product to exfoliate skin with less irritation than standard glycolic acid treatments and produce glowing skin. Papain enzyme is derived from the papaya fruit, which is known for its exfoliating benefits. After selecting the papain, the company optimized it with cross-linking agents and a stabilizer to ensure performance, then added a preservative system.
Toxicity testing showed the papain enzyme to be less irritating than standard glycolic acid treatments. In addition, the exfoliant exhibited good stability when compared to free papain and subtilisin; it retained 60% activity at 45ºC for six weeks and 75% activity at 45ºC for 12 weeks in an o/w formulation.
In vivo clinical and consumer tests with the material showed a visible improvement in the appearance of skin. And although subjects reportedly noticed a difference in their skin after the first application, they reported increased luminosity with softer, smoother skin after 21 days of treatment.