Methods & Processes

Validating the Effectiveness of Rubbing on Percutaneous Penetration

Aug 25, 2015Niloufar Mohajerani and Kasra Afzali, University of California, Davis, CA; and Howard I. Maibach, M.D., University of California, San Francisco, CA

The effect of rubbing on percutaneous penetration has long been questioned. Existing data regarding rubbing effects is sparse, and what is available is controversial at best. While some evidence suggests that rubbing increases absorption, others note the opposite. Further understanding of the rubbing effect on percutaneous penetration may offer a more complete picture in relation to the application of drugs, cosmetics and skin care.

Study Suggests Link Between Citrus Consumption and Melanoma Risk

Jul 2, 2015

A recent study suggests a possible link between the consumption of citrus and an increased risk of malignant melanoma.

Destruction and Creation Harmonize at C&T Summit

Jun 30, 2015

“Analysis, synthesis, creation and destruction” was the secret recipe behind keynote speaker Jeffrey Baxter’s guide to unconventional thinking for problem-solving during the Cosmetics & Toiletries Summit.

Sun Protection and Early Detection

Jun 12, 2015

According to the 2014 American Society for Dermatologic Surgery (ASDS) Survey on Dermatologic Procedures, ASDS members performed an estimated 3.08 million skin cancer treatments last year.

Child Subjects Proposed for AD Treatment Trials

Jun 4, 2015

Treatment options for atopic dermatitis (AD) are expanding and dermatologists anticipate new therapies to help both children and adults.

Making it Personal: The Focus of Multifactorial Skin Care

May 1, 2015Katerina Steventon, FaceWorkshops, LLC

Our skin is often the first thing others notice about us, so its impact on our self-image and esteem is considerable. Accounting for all of the skin’s traits and the causes of them requires a multifactor approach to keep it clear, smooth and supple.

Natural vs. Synthetic Antimicrobials and HDAC as an Indicator of Microflora Health

Apr 20, 2015Maureen Danaher, Durant Scholz, Erica Segura and Meghan Darley, Active Micro Technologies, LLC, Lincolntown, NC USA

This article reviews the role of skin microflora in protecting skin, and assesses how the histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzyme is implicated. From this, HDAC expression is used as an indicator to compare the effects of traditional biocides and preservatives with natural antimicrobials on skin’s microbiome. Results suggest the latter effectively preserve products while maintaining a healthy microbiome.

Sustainable Ingredient Science: Amazonian Aguaje and Pequi Palm Oils

Apr 1, 2015Giorgio Dell’Acqua, PhD, Dell’Acqua Consulting, Jersey City, NJ USA

The food and nutrition supply chain is often the first entry for “super plants” from the Amazon to the market, but other applications are increasing, especially in personal care and cosmetics. The present article profiles two Amazonian palm oils, aguaje and pequi, in terms of their sustainability, chemistry and application.

Modeling the Dynamics of Hair Movement

Jan 16, 2015

The dynamics of hair movement are of particular interest to product developers because they are important to consumers. In relation, computer animation and 3D modeling expert Norman Badler, PhD, of the University of Pennsylvania, will discuss ways to model the dynamics of hair movement during the Cosmetics & Toiletries Summit.

Formulators Can Avoid Quality Disasters

Dec 10, 2014Howard Baker, Product Integrity Laboratory LLC

There are a number of things that cosmetic chemists can do to avoid problems in production and ultimately in the marketplace. In the laboratory, almost anything is possible, but production life is very different.

IFSCC 2014 Explores Social, Psychological and Sensorial Aspects of Beauty

Nov 6, 2014

As one might expect from an event centered around beauty and staged in Paris, the 28th Congress of the International Societies of Cosmetic Chemists (IFSCC) was nothing less than fabulous. However, the glamour and fanfare was deeply rooted in science.

Assessing Beauty By Facial Topography, Color and Symmetry

Oct 1, 2014

The notion of “aging gracefully” no longer applies, as consumers are constantly judging each other’s facial features to assess their beauty. Here, based on recent studies, it is suggested that facial topography, symmetry and color dictate those assessments. While the cosmetics industry can lessen some of these factors, some are a result of biology or lifestyle.

Practical Foam Science

Sep 23, 2014Steven Abbott, PhD, Steven Abbott TCNF Ltd., Ipswich, and University of Leeds, West Yorkshire, UK

Foam science can be confusing, so the temptation is to formulate by trial and error. However, understanding the science behind key aspects of foam—i.e., elasticity, DLVO Theory stability, Ostwald ripening, draining and antifoams—and applying this will fast-track foam development. These concepts are detailed here.

Deriving Renewable Squalane from Sugarcane

Jul 1, 2014Derek McPhee, PhD; Armelle Pin; Lance Kizer, PhD; and Loren Perelman, PhD; Amyris Inc., Emeryville, CA, USA

Commercial use of squalane has been constrained by an inconsistent supply and resulting price volatility, but modern biotechnology has been able to leverage enzyme-catalyzed chemical reactions found in nature coupled with traditional chemical processing steps to create a high-quality source of renewable squalane.

3D Printing 'Popping Up' in Personal Care

May 16, 2014Rachel L. Grabenhofer, Cosmetics & Toiletries

Three-dimensional (3D) printing is popping up in many fields, including in cosmetics and personal care development; from behind the scenes, in R&D package concept labs, to presentations at in-cosmetics and the April SCS Symposium—even at home, in one former Harvard student's printable cosmetic device concept.

R&D Spending: 'Investment' vs. Expense

May 7, 2014

It's not news that top-performing companies are putting resources into R&D. Interestingly, however, according to the U.S. Commerce Department, if R&D spending were treated as an investment rather than an expense, the overall growth of gross domestic product could be much higher.

Science-based Skin Care in Demand

May 2, 2014

Science-based skin care is not new to the industry, but according to market research firm Diagonal Reports, it's a new demand from consumers. Speakers at the C&T Summit will address means to meet this demand on June 26 and 27. Register now!

Understanding Fragrance Allergy, Is Fragrance-free Always Necessary?

May 1, 2014Garrett Coman and Nicholas Blickenstaff, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, USA, and University of Utah, Salt Lake City, USA; Ashley Edwards, Touro University, Vallejo, CA, USA; Howard I. Maibach, MD, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, USA

This article reviews studies to diagnose allergic contact dermatitis due to fragrance, including a patch test designed to measure such. Limitations of patch testing, the relevance of fragrance concentration in products, use testing of common consumer products, and dermatologist recommendations to manage fragrance contact allergy also are discussed.

Penn State Develops 3D Model Linking Facial Features to DNA

Mar 25, 2014Cosmetics & Toiletries editors

Researchers at Penn State have developed a three-dimensional model that illustrates connections between the shape of the human face and DNA.

Skin Aging Characteristics of Russian Women

Feb 24, 2014Eve Merinville; Gemma Z. Grennan; Vlad Golounin; Johanna M. Gillbro, PhD; Jacques Mathieu; and Alain Mavon, PhD, Oriflame

There appear to be no published studies on facial aging in Russian women, despite clear interest from the industry in this market. In order to formulate products, it is necessary to understand the end consumer. This article therefore explores a recent study of 203 Russian women and describes their aging specificities versus other, more studied Caucasian populations.

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