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The structure of avobenzone
|UV filter||Other names||Maximum concentration|
|p-Aminobenzoic acid||PABA||15% (USA, AUS); 5% (EU)|
|Padimate O||OD-PABA, octyldimethyl-PABA, σ-PABA||8% (EU, USA, AUS); 10% (JP) (Not currently supported in EU and may be delisted.)|
|Phenylbenzimidazole sulfonic acid||Ensulizole, Eusolex 232, PBSA, Parsol HS||4% (USA, AUS); 8% (EU); 3% (JP)|
|Cinoxate||2-Ethoxyethyl p-methoxycinnamate||3% (USA); 6% (AUS)|
|Dioxybenzone||Benzophenone-8||3% (USA, AUS)|
|Oxybenzone||Benzophenone-3, Eusolex 4360, Escalol 567||6% (US); 10% (AUS, EU); 5% (JP)|
|Homosalate||Homomethyl salicylate, HMS||10% (EU, JP); 15% (USA, AUS)|
|Menthyl anthranilate||Meradimate||5% (USA, AUS)|
|Octocrylene||Eusolex OCR, 2-cyano-3,3diphenyl acrylic acid, 2-ethylhexylester||10% (USA, AUS, EU, JP)|
|Octyl methoxycinnamate||Octinoxate, EMC, OMC, Ethylmethoxycinnamate, Escalol 557, 2-ethylhexyl-paramethoxycinnamate, Parsol MCX||7.5% (US); 10% (EU, AUS); 20% (JP)|
|Octyl salicylate||Octisalate, 2-Ethylhexyl salicylate, Escalol 587,||5% (EU, US, AU); 10% (JP)|
|Sulisobenzone||2-Hydroxy-4-Methoxybenzophenone-5-sulfonic acid, 3-benzoyl-4-hydroxy-6-methoxybenzenesulfonic acid, Benzophenone-4, Escalol 577||5% (EU); 10% (US, AU, JP)|
|Trolamine salicylate||Triethanolamine salicylate||12% (USA, AUS)|
|Avobenzone||1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3-(4-tert-butylphenyl)propane-1,3-dione, Butyl methoxy dibenzoylmethane, BMDBM, Parsol 1789, Eusolex 9020||3% (US); 5% (EU, AUS);10% (JP)|
|Ecamsule||Mexoryl SX, Terephthalylidene Dicamphor Sulfonic Acid||10% (EU, AUS)|
*Source, Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/sunscreen
UV filters formulated into sunscreens in the United States must be approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), as they are regulated as drugs in the United States. Organic UV filters, shown in Table 1, do not include zinc oxide and titanium dioxide, which are inorganic UV filters.
Organic UV filters are aromatic compounds with a great number of double bonds. The salient feature of these molecules is necessary for the absorption of UV radiation, and avobenzone (shown in Figure 1) is an example of this. These molecules must absorb within the range of UV values to be of interest in sun care.
UVA: These 320–400 nanometer, long-wave solar rays, although less likely than UVB to cause sunburn, penetrate the skin more deeply. This type of radiation is considered the chief culprit behind wrinkling, leathering and other aspects of photoaging.
UVB: These 290–320 nanometer, short-wave solar rays are more potent than UVA in producing sunburn. They are considered the main cause of basal and squamous cell carcinomas as well as a possible cause of melanoma.
The difference between the molecules is dictated by their structure. UV filters differ in the specific wavelength that they absorb and the efficiency that they absorb (extinction coefficient). This explains why formulations have more than one sunscreen present.