Formula Anatomy Deciphered—Hand Creams and Sanitizers

May 1, 2013 | Contact Author | By: Luigi Rigano, PhD, Studio Rigano Industrial Consulting Laboratories
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Title: Formula Anatomy Deciphered—Hand Creams and Sanitizers
hand carex creamsx santizersx
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Hands are the principal tool of human exchanges, and each individual’s hands encounter different environments and handle different materials. Moreover, they are the key and richest source of sensorial tactile perceptions, i.e., rough, even, cold, warm, soft, hard, etc. Hands also frequently provide symbols and perceptions of human personality, energy and mood, and because these multitasking tools are easily soiled, they must be frequently cleansed.

Hands use human muscle energy to apply mechanical action to surfaces, bodies, instruments and machinery. They have a complex structure. The palm and the fingertip contain one of the densest networks of nerve endings of the body. Skin morphology is unique in the palm area: It is glabrous, relatively thick and lighter than the skin of other body parts. It is covered with papillary ridges, acting as friction pads. The hairy skin of the dorsal site is thin, soft and pliable. The border tissue around the fingernail structure, called the paronychium, is thin and easily inflamed. It can host a high bacterial charge that may induce painful reactions. The structure of the hands is complicated by aging, which further aggravates dryness, skin thinning, fissures and anelastic behavior.

No ideal hand care product profile seems to exist but there are some common elements that can guide formulation strategies for this specific site. First of all is the need to soothe and control the intense and sometimes painful skin dryness following the frequent use of cleansing products, which is especially true for the aging population. In other cases, there is a need for equalizing uneven blood flow in the extremities that occurs with changing temperature and leads to intensive and variable reddening. Dark spots on the back of the hands are also a frequent problem, mostly resulting from skin aging and sun overexposure. Further, increasing consumer awareness about the daily risks of bacterial and mycotic contamination when touching soiled surfaces, human bodies and common objects has given rise to a large variety of hand sanitizers, all claiming long-lasting hygiene and bacterial protection. These worries concern both men and women, leading to formulations that should sensorially appeal to everyone.

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This content is adapted from an article in GCI Magazine. The original version can be found here.



Biography: Luigi Rigano, PhD, Studio Rigano Industrial Consulting Laboratories

Luigi Rigano, PhD, is a consultant for the cosmetics industry, co-director of the Institute of Skin and Product Evaluation (ISPE), and head of Studio Rigano Industrial Consulting Laboratories, a laboratory he founded in 1986. He spent more than 15 years in R&D, production and technical positions at Unilever, Intercos, Givaudan and Schering-Plough Corp., and is an active member of the International Federation of Societies of Cosmetic Chemists (IFSCC) and of the register of chemists in the Lombardia region of Italy. Rigano serves as a consultant at the Milan Court and has authored more than 80 scientific articles on cosmetics, aesthetics and dermatology.

Footnotes [Rigano 128(5)]

a SymWhite 377 (INCI: Phenylethyl Resorcinol) is manufactured by Symrise, Holzminden, Germany.

b Chromabright (INCI: Dimethylmethoxy Chromanyl Palmitate) is manufactured by Lipotec, Barcelona, Spain.

c Symdeo B125 (INCI: 2-Methyl 5-Cyclohexylpentanol) is manufactured by Symrise, Holzminden, Germany.

d Symclariol (INCI: Decylene Glycol) is manufactured by Symrise, Holzminden, Germany.

e Capsulent microcapsules are manufactured by Capsulent, Santa Cruz, Calif., USA.

f Hydresia SF2 (INCI: Carthamus Tinctorius (Safflower) Oleosomes (and) Water (aqua)) is manufactured by Botaneco, Calgary, Canada.

g Lumiskin (INCI: Caprylic/Capric Triglyceride (and) Diacetyl Boldine) is manufactured by Sederma, Le Perray en Yvelines, France.

h Calmosensine (INCI: Butylene Glycol (and) Water (aqua) (and) Laureth-3 (and) Hydroxyethylcellulose (and) Acetyl Dipeptide-1 Cetyl Ester) is manufactured by Sederma, Le Perray en Yvelines, France.

Formula 1. W/O oil hand cream from Kanebo1

PEG-2 Stearate  2.00% w/w
Microcrystalline Wax 2.00
Beeswax 1.00
Petrolatum 2.00
Squalane 5.00
Octyldodecyl Myristate 12.00
Monoammonium 18 -Glycyrrhizinate 0.30
L-Ascorbic Acid Sulfate Ester Sodium Salt 3.00
Glycerin 3.00
Methylparaben 0.10
Fragrance (parfum) 0.10
Water (aqua) qs to 100.00



Formula 2. Soothing hand cream from Lipo Chemicals2

Water (aqua) qs to 100.00% w/w
Disodium EDTA 0.02
Tetrasodium EDTA 0.02
Acrylates/C10–30 Alkyl Acrylates Crosspolymer 0.30
Neopentylglycol Dicaprate Dicaprylate (Liponate NPGC-2, Lipo) 10.00
Tridecyl Trimellitate (Liponate TDTM, Lipo) 5.00
Theobroma Cacao Seed Butter (Lipobutter Refined Cocoa, Lipo) 2.00
Glyceryl Stearate (and) PEG-100 Stearate (Lipomulse 165, Lipo) 1.20
Cetyl Alcohol (Lipocol C, Lipo) 1.00
Cetearyl Alcohol (and) Polysorbate 60 (Lipowax P, Lipo) 0.75
Preservative 0.80
Sodium Hydroxide 0.84
Dimethicone (and) Dimethiconol (DC 1403 Fluid, Dow Corning) 2.00
Fragrance (parfum) 0.20
Procedure: Combine A with propeller at medium speed. Sprinkle B into A and heat to 80°C. Heat C to 80°C with propeller mixing to ensure uniformity. Add C to AB and mix for at least 5 min at 80°C. Slowly cool to 60°C. Add D to ABC and mix for 15 min at medium speed. Cool to 45°C with mixing. Add E in order and mix until uniform.



Formula 3. New Hands Restorative Hand Treatment SPF 15 from Neutrogena3

Ingredient Approx. Concentrations
Octylmethoxycinnamate 8.00–10.00% w/w
Benzophenone-3 2.00–4.00
Water (aqua) qs to 100.00
Glycolic Acid 1.00–5.00
Glycerin 1.00–5.00
C<sub>12–15</sub> Alkyl Benzoate 2.00–5.00
Dicaprylyl Maleate 2.00–5.00
Cetyl Alcohol 2.00–4.00
Stearic Acid 1.00–3.00
Glyceryl Stearate 1.00–3.00
PEG-100 Stearate 2.00–4.00
Sodium Glycolate 1.00–3.00
Retinyl Palmitate 0.10–0.20
Tocopheryl Acetate 0.20–0.50
Ascorbic Acid Polypeptide 0.10–0.40
Panthenol 0.20–0.50
Tetrasodium EDTA 0.05–0.10
Magnesium Aluminum Silicate 1.00–2.00
Bisabolol 0.05–0.20
Cyclomethicone 0.50–1.00
Methylparaben 0.20–0.25
Propylparaben 0.20–0.25
Xanthan Gum 0.20–0.40
Fragrance (parfum) 0.20–0.40



Formula 4. Hand and Body Lotion from Dow Corning4

Water (aqua) qs to 100.00% w/w
Polysorbate 20 2.00
Glycerin 3.00
Xanthan Gum 0.12
Tetrasodium EDTA 0.10
Parabens 0.35
Safflower Oil 4.00
Sesame Oil 4.00
Glyceryl Stearate (and) PEG-100 Stearate (Arlacel 165, Croda) 3.00
Sorbitan Stearate 3.00
Cetyl Alcohol 1.00
Shea Butter 3.00
Dimethicone (DC 200 Fluid, Dow Corning) 0.50
BHA 0.05
Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose (Methocel 40-100, Dow Wolff Celulosics) 0.10
Tocopherols and Tocotrienols 0.01
Stearic Acid 1.50
Quaternium-15 (Dowicil 200, Dow Chemical) 0.10
Vegetal Proteins 0.10
Fragrance (parfum) 0.10


Formula 5. Vegetal hand treatment from Rigano Laboratories

Water (aqua) qs to 100.0% w/w
Allantoin 0.10
Betain (Natural Extract AP, Danisco) 1.00
Xanthan Gum 0.10
Ammonium Acryloyl Dimethyltaurate/VP Copolymer 1.50
Hydrogenated Olive Oil Unsaponifiables (and) Hydrogenated Isocetyl Olivate (EMOLIVE, Naturactiva) 2.00
Limnantes Alba (Meadowfoam) Seed Oil (and) Butyrospermum Parkii (Shea Butter) Extract (Fancol VB, Elementis Specialties) 0.70
Preservatives qs
Kojic Acid Dipalmitate 0.10
Caprylyl Trimethicone (SilCare Silicone 31M50, Clariant) 2.00
Tetrahydropiperine 0.10
Dry Olive Extract 0.10
Rosemary Leaf Extract 0.10
Glycerin 2.00
Methylene bis-Benzotriazolyl Tetramethylbutyl-Phenol (Tinosorb M, BASF) 1.00
Citrus Flavonoids 0.50
Fragrance (parfum) 0.40



Formula 6. O/W glycerin hand cream

Water (aqua) qs to 100.00% w/w
Glycerin 25.00
Allantoin 0.20
Disodium EDTA 0.10
Methylparaben 0.25
Propylparaben 0.25
Dimethyldistearyl Ammonium Chloride (Arosurf TA100, Evonik) 4.00
Hydroxypropyl Guar Hydroxypropyltrimonium Chloride (Jaguar C162, Rhodia) 0.50
D-Panthenol 0.30
Sunflower Oil 3.00
Dimethicone (and) Dimethylsiloxysilicate (Silicone 593, Dow Corning) 0.50
Octyldodecanol (Eutanol G, Cognis/BASF) 2.00
Cetyl Alcohol 2.00
Tocopheryl Acetate 0.30
BHT 0.02
18-β-Glycyrrhetinic Acid 0.10
Diazolidinyl Urea (Germall II, ISP/Ashland) 0.30
Fragrance (parfum) 0.30
Sodium Hydroxide 0.02



Formula 7. W/O protective, soft touch moisturizing hand cream

Sucrose Polystearate (Sisterna SP01-C, Sisterna) 3.50% w/w
Sucrose Distearate (Sisterna SP10-C, Sisterna) 3.50
Isohexadecane (Arlamol HD, Croda) 30.00
Cera Alba (Beeswax) 2.00
Cyclomethicone (Silicone 344, Dow Corning) 4.00
Magnesium Stearate 0.50
18-β-Glycyrrhetinic Acid 0.02
Zinc Oxide 2.00
Polymethyl Methacrylate (Micropearl M100, Seppic) 4.00
Sericite (Sericite JS61D, Nikko) 6.00
Triclosan (Irgasan DP 300, Ciba) 0.10
Phenoxyethanol 0.80
BHT 0.10
Glycerin 5.00
Magnesium Sulfate Heptahydrate 0.70
Disodium EDTA 0.20
Allantoin 0.10
Silica Dimethyl Silylate (Aerosil R972, Evonik) 0.70
Imidazolidinyl Urea (Germall 115, ISP/Ashland) 0.30
Tocotrienols 0.10
Fragrance (parfum) 0.50



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