Structured Surfactant Systems for High Performance Shampoos

Nov 1, 2010 | Contact Author | By: Denis Bendejacq, PhD; Caroline Mabille, PhD; Véronique Picquet; and Ericka Gates, Rhodia
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Title: Structured Surfactant Systems for High Performance Shampoos
structured shampoosx hair repairx treatx protectx revivex
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Keywords: structured shampoos | hair repair | treat | protect | revive

Abstract: Specialized surfactant systems that form multilamellar vesicles can be used to design high performance shampoos that outperform micellar formulas. These materials combine with and stabilize actives ranging from molecular to particulate, liquid to solid, and hydrophobic or cationic, to deliver them equally to damaged and virgin regions of hair to act where they are needed most.

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D Bendejacq, C Mabille, V Picquet and E Gates, Structured surfactant systems for high performance shampoos, Cosm & Toil 125(11) 22-29 (Nov 2010)

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In life, hair is one of the most immediately perceived attributes of beauty. For this reason, individuals want their hair to look healthy, shiny and soft. As the use of at-home treatments such as bleaches, dyes and permanent waves grows, extensive hair damage often results. Thus, caring for and repairing damaged hair is an important need, and designing shampoos that specifically treat damaged hair is a constant challenge for formulators.

Micellar shampoos consisting of surfactant blends that form simple micelles constitute the majority of mass market formulations. This is because they are relatively inexpensive to formulate since their principal ingredients, including sodium laureth sulfate and cocamidopropyl betaine, are major commodity ingredients. On virgin hair, their performances are satisfactory.

With the help of conditioning polymers and silicone oils like dimethicone, they cleanse and condition efficiently and provide ease of combing as well as manageability. But while continued efforts are made to improve them, micellar shampoos offer limited performance on damaged hair. Specifically, their ability to deposit silicone oil and provide ease of combing and conditioning efficacy can be significantly reduced, as will be illustrated in the present article.


Lab Practical: Structured Surfactant Systems

  • Multilamellar vesicles are stacked in concentric, charged bilayers; these objects, swollen with water, fill out the formulation space, co-existing and interacting with other ingredients such as oils and polymeric conditioners.
  • The structured formulations described all passed the classical 45°C, three-month stability test and no macroscopic phase separation was observed.
  • Structured shampoos shows a constant and significant increase in the amount of dimethicone deposited on both virgin and damaged hair.
  • A natural oil structured shampoo can provide conditioning performance that is equal to or better than that of a silicone-based shampoo.
  • Structured systems easily combine with and stabilize actives include: molecular or particulate, liquid or solid, and hydrophobic or cationic.

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Table 1. Test formulas

Table 1. Test formulas

The various formulations used for the described studies include: A) a silicone-based micellar shampoo stabilized with a rheological agent; B) a non-stabilized version of the same boosted with increasing amounts of a cationic surfactant; C) silicone-based structured shampoos boosted with increasing amounts of the same cationic ingredient; and D) the silicone-free version of a structured shampoo.

Figure 1. Micrograph of multilamellar vesicles

Figure 1. Micrograph of multilamellar vesicles

Micrograph of multilamellar vesicles embedded in a frozen continuous water phase; Inset: illustration of stacked surfactant bilayers.

Figure 2. Deposition by micellar and structured shampoos

Figure 2. Amounts of silicone oil deposited on virgin and once-bleached hair

Amounts of silicone oil deposited (in ppm) on virgin and once-bleached damaged hair by a micellar (left) and structured (right) shampoo.

Figure 3. Deposition by non-stabilized micellar and structured shampoos

Figure 3. Amounts of silicone oil deposited by shampoos

Amounts of silicone oil deposited (in ppm) on virgin and once-bleached damaged hair tresses (4.5 g each) by a) non-stabilized micellar shampoos, and b) structured shampoos, both boosted with CTAC.

Figure 4. Selectivity of shampoos

Figure 4. Selectivity of shampoos

Selectivity of shampoos: a) ratio of damaged/virgin hair dimethicone oil depositions for cetrimonium chloride-boosted micellar and structured shampoos containing 3.0% w/w silicone oil emulsion; b) comparison of silicone oil deposition on virgin medium brown hair of structured shampoos containing 2.0% dimethicone, 0.4% w/w conditioning cationic guar, and 1.0% w/w cetrimonium chloride, stearamidopropyl dimethylamine or stearalkonium chloride (from left to right).

Figure 5. Percentage of reduction in work and half-head evaluations

Figure 5. Percentage of reduction in work and half-head evaluations

a) Percentage of reduction in work required to comb damaged hair in both wet and dry states based on deposition of dimethicone or sunflower oil from a structured shampoo, 3.0% w/w oil in each case; b) half-head evaluations performed by professional hairdressers on 10 female subjects with damaged hair of different sensorial and conditioning performance attributes (on a scale from 1 to 5) of a sunflower oil-based structured shampoo or dimethicone-based leading brand.

Figure 6. Color fade

Figure 6. Color fade

Color fade: a) ΔE combines changes in L (white to black), a (red to green) and b (yellow to blue) color coordinates; b) illustration of the extent of color fade caused by a surfactant system in its micellar and structured states, and in a complete shampoo formulation.

Figure 7. Micellar market benchmark and changes in red coordinate

Figure 7. Micellar market benchmark and changes in red coordinate

a) (top) A micellar market benchmark may limit the overall ΔE but it does not protect specific shades, such as red, as the number of shampoos increases; (bottom) the structured shampoo is able to stabilize and deposit pigments to compensate for the loss of specific shades; b) Changes in the red to green coordinate a, caused by shampooing with water, using a market benchmark and a structured shampoo including red pigments.

Footnotes [Bendejacq 125(11)]

a Miracare SLB 365 (50% w/w active) (INCI: Water (aqua) (and) Sodium Trideceth Sulfate (and) Sodium Lauroamphoacetate (and) Cocamide MEA (and) Sodium Chloride (and) Methylisothiazolinone) is a product of Rhodia.

b Jaguar C17 powder (INCI: Guar Hydroxypropyl-trimonium Chloride) is a product of Rhodia.

c Mirasil DME-2KCG, (50% w/w active) (INCI: Water (aqua) (and) Dimethicone (and) Laureth 8 (and) Succinoglycan (and) Methylchloroisothiazolinone (and) Methylisothiazolinone) is a product of Blue Star Silicones.

d Lubrirob Tod 18.80 (100% w/w active) (INCI: Helianthus Annuus (Sunflower) Seed Oil) is a product of Novance.

e Carbopol Aqua CC or Aqua SF-1 (INCI: Acrylates Copolymer) are products of Lubrizol Advanced Materials Inc.

f The DV-II Viscosimeter is a device from Brookfield Engineering Laboratories, Inc.

g Incroquat CTC-30 (29.3% w/w active) (INCI: Cetrimonium Chloride) is a product of Croda International Plc.

h The Miniature Tensile Tester and fiber material testing instruments used for this study are devices by Dia-stron Ltd., Broomall, PA USA.

j The CM-2500D spectrocolorimeter is a device by Konica Minolta Holdings, Inc.

k Tresses were obtained from International Hair Importers and Products, Glendale, NY USA.

m Independent tests were conducted by Institut Dr. Schrader Creachem GmbH, Holzminden, Germany.

n Mackernium SDC85 (100% w/w active) (INCI: Stearalkonium Chloride) is a product of Rhodia.

p Mackine 301 (100% w/w active) (INCI: Stearamidopropyl Dimethylamine) is a product of Rhodia.

q Unipure Red LC3075 (100% active) (INCI: CI 15850 (and) Triethoxycaprylylsilane) is a product of Sensient Cosmetic Technologies LCW.

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