Growth Factors and Their Sources*

PDGFa: Platelets, macrophages, epithelial cells, endothelial cellsb, smooth muscle cells, bone matrix

TGF-βa: Platelets, macrophages, activated T lymphocytesb, osteoblasts, immature chondrocytes, bone matrix

EGF/TGF-α: Platelets, macrophages, epithelial cells, eosinophils (TGF-a)

IGF-la: Plasma, epithelial cells, endothelial cellsb, fibroblastsb, smooth muscle cells, osteoblasts, bone matrix

bFGF: Macrophages, endothelial cellsb, osteoblasts, immature and mature chondrocytes, bone matrix

IL-la: Monocytes and macrophages, keratinocytes, vascular endothelial cells, T and B lymphocytes, glioma cells


*taken from Reference 1

a When not specified, PDGF-AA, -BB and -AB are designated as PDGF; TGF-β1 and β2 as TGF-β; and IL-la and IL-lb as IL-I. IGF-II (skeletal growth factor) is also produced by osteoblasts and is present in bone matrix.

b Hypothesized from in vitro experiments