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Literature Review: Skin Fluorescence, Nano Delivery, TiO2 and Cell Metabolism
By: Rachel Grabenhofer, Cosmetics & Toiletries
Posted: July 2, 2013
page 3 of 3M Lebwohl, S Shumack, L Stein Gold, A Melgaard, T Larsson and SK Tyring; March 20, 2013 (online); JAMA Derm
Recent research published in the JAMA describes a 12-month study of subjects after they received treatment for, and clearance of, actinic keratoses. Subjects initially were treated with ingenol mebutate, a macrocyclic diterpene ester from the sap of Euphorbia peplus, and were then re-assessed for recurrence rates and safety. According to the article abstract, 100 patients cleared from acne of the face or scalp, and 71 patients cleared from acne of the trunk or extremities, completed the study.
Sustained lesion reduction rates, compared with baseline, were 87.2% for the face or scalp and 86.8% for the trunk or extremities. The estimated average times to recurrence were 365 days for the face or scalp, and 274 days for the trunk or extremities. There were also no safety concerns found during the follow-up period. The authors concluded that ingenol mebutate gel, applied for two or three consecutive days to treat actinic keratoses, produced clinically relevant and sustained clearance and long-term lesion reduction.
Metabolic effects of TiO2 nanoparticles
P Tucci, G Porta, M Agostini, D Dinsdale, I Iavicoli, K Cain, A Finazzi-Agró, G Melino and A Willis; Jan. 29, 2013; Cell Death and Disease
According to a paper published in Cell Death and Disease, the extent to which nanoparticle compounds contribute to cellular toxicity is unclear. Although they are associated with the induction of oxidative stress pathways related to this process, the specific proteins and the metabolic pathways involved are largely unknown. To investigate this, the authors studied the effects of TiO2 on the HaCaT human keratinocyte cell line. Results showed that although TiO2 did not affect cell cycle phase distribution, nor cell death, the nanoparticles did have a considerable and rapid effect on mitochondrial function. Importantly, the uptake of nanoparticles into the cultured cells was restricted to phagosomes, and TiO2 nanoparticles did not enter into the nucleus or any other cytoplasmic organelles. Further, no other morphological changes were detected after 24 hr.
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