Visually Indicating Wipe Efficacy and Other Topics: Literature Findings

Jan 1, 2010 | Contact Author | By: Charles Fox, Independent Consultant
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Title: Visually Indicating Wipe Efficacy and Other Topics: Literature Findings
patentsx antiagingx caffeine for UVBx MMPsx antioxidants and sunscreensx heat shock proteinx wipesx
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Keywords: patents | antiaging | caffeine for UVB | MMPs | antioxidants and sunscreens | heat shock protein | wipes

Abstract: This survey of patent and research literature describes moneymaking ideas for personal care product development, including enhancing avobenzone photostability in the presence of zinc oxide with a phosphate-based emulsifier, adding value to sunscreen protection with antioxidants, indicating wipe efficacy visually, and using Heat Shock Protein 27 for anti-aging, among others.

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C Fox, Technically Speaking—Visually indicating wipe efficacy and other topics: Literature findings, Cosm & Toil 125(1) 18-26 (Jan 2010)

This survey of patent and research literature describes moneymaking ideas for personal care product development, including enhancing avobenzone photostability in the presence of zinc oxide with a phosphate-based emulsifier, adding value to sunscreen protection with antioxidants, indicating wipe efficacy visually, and using Heat Shock Protein 27 for antiaging, among others.

Skin and Skin Care

Antiaging clinical efficacy: Watson et al. have published on the clinical efficacy of a cosmetic antiaging product.1 Few over-the-counter (OTC) antiaging products have been subjected to rigorous double-blind, vehicle-controlled efficacy trials. The authors had previously observed that the application of an antiaging product to photoaged skin under occlusion for 12 days stimulated the deposition of fibrillin-1, suggesting its potential to repair and possibly improve photoaged skin. The researchers therefore examined a similar OTC antiaging product using a patch test assay over a 6-month, double-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT), with a further 6-month open phase to assess the clinical efficacy in photoaged skin.

For the patch test, a commercially available test product and its vehicle were applied, occluded for 12 days to photo-aged forearm skin (n = 10) prior to biopsy, and fibrillin-1 was immunohistochemically assessed. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) was used as a positive control. Sixty photoaged subjects were recruited to the RCT, and the test product and vehicle (n = 30) were applied once daily for six months to the face and hands. Clinical assessments were performed at recruitment and following 1, 3 and 6 months of use. Skin biopsies of twenty-eight volunteers were taken (test product n = 15; vehicle n = 13) for immunohistochemical assessment of fibrillin-l from the dorsal wrist at baseline and after six months of treatment. All volunteers received the test product for six additional months and final clinical assessments were performed at the end of this open period.

In the 12-day patch test assay, the researchers observed significant immunohistological deposition of fibrillin-1 in skin treated with the test product and ATRA, compared with the untreated baseline (P = 0.005 and 0.015, respectively). In the clinical RCT, the test product significantly improved facial wrinkles at six months, compared with the baseline assessment (P = 0.013), whereas vehicle-treated skin was not significantly improved (P = 0.11).

After 12 months, a significant benefit of the test product over that projected for the vehicle was observed, where 77% vs. 33% of test subjects improved, respectively (combined Wilcoxon rank tests P = 0.026). Significant deposition of fibrillin-1 in the skin treated with the test product for 6 months also was noted. This demonstrates that a cosmetic product can produce significant improvement in the appearance of wrinkles and further supports the use of fibrillin-1 as a robust biomarker for the repair of photoaged dermis.

Caffeine for UVB protection: Kerzendorfer et al. report on the ability of caffeine to protect against the adverse effects of UVB.2 Studies using mice have indicated that caffeine, administered orally or topically, promotes apoptosis of UVB-irradiated keratinocytes. These authors identified the pathway targeted by caffeine and suggest that inhibiting the DNA damage response could prevent skin cancer. This could represent an important protective or therapeutic benefit from the most unlikely of sources—one’s daily cup of coffee.

 MMPs in photoaging: Taihao et al. have published on matrix-degrading metalloproteinases that cause photoaging.3 Photoaging is among the most well-known harmful effects of chronic exposure to solar UV radiation, and extensive damage to the dermal connective tissue is a hallmark in photoaged skin. UV irradiation induces the expression of certain members of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family, which degrade collagen and other extracellular matrix proteins that comprise the dermal connective tissue. This disruption of the normal architecture of connective tissue impairs skin function and causes it to look aged.

Although the critical role of MMPs in photoaging is undeniable, important questions remain. These authors have summarized the current understanding of the role of MMPs in photoaging and presented new data that describes the expression and regulation by UV irradiation of all members of the MMP family in human skin in vivo. The article also quantifies the relative contributions of epidermis and dermis to the expression of UV irradiation-induced MMPs in human skin in vivo.

The basement membrane and skin health: Amano et al. have published on aging in sun-exposed skin and its acceleration by three major environmental factors: UV radiation, dryness and oxidation. Since exposure to UV radiation is the most influential factor in photoaging,4 researchers studied internal changes of sun-exposed skin and compared them with sun-protected skin to identify ways to protect against damage from UV exposure to delay photoaging.

The researchers observed that the basement membrane (BM) at the dermal-epidermal junction (DEJ) of sun-exposed skin became damaged, multilayered and partly disrupted. The BM plays important roles in maintaining a healthy epidermis and dermis but repeated damage to it destabilizes the skin and accelerates aging. MMPs and urinary plasminogen activators are increased in UV-irradiated skin. In this study, MMPs were detected in the cornified layer in skin-equivalent models in sun-exposed skin but not in protected skin. The researchers found that while MMPs and plasmin damage the BM, its reconstruction is enhanced by inhibiting these proteinases and by increasing the synthesis of BM components. Enhancement of BM repair mechanisms may be a useful strategy in retarding photoaging.

Antioxidants for added value sunscreen protection: Matsui et al. have published on non-sunscreen antioxidants for added value sunscreen photoprotection.5 The association between UV radiation (UVR) exposure and both skin cancer and photoaging is well-documented. In addition to conventional organic-chemical and physical mineral sunscreens, other non-sunscreen protective strategies have been developed, including topically applied botanical extracts, antioxidants and DNA repair enzymes. Standard terms relating to photoprotection such as SPF do not accurately reflect the photoprotection benefits of these materials. For example, despite minimal SPF values, extracts containing polyphenols such as (-)-epigallocatechin-3 have been shown to protect against UV-induced DNA damage and immune suppression in part through their ability to reduce oxidative stress.

These authors thus examined the addition of botanical antioxidants and vitamins C and E to broad-spectrum sunscreens to further decrease UV-induced damage and compared them with sunscreens alone. These agents were shown to enhance protection against UV-induced epidermal thickening, over-expression of MMP-1 and MMP-9, and depletion of CDla+ Langerhans cells. They concluded that, when applied topically to human skin in vivo, non-sunscreen materials such as botanical extracts, antioxidants and DNA repair enzymes can contribute value to sun care formulas.

Heat Shock Protein 27 for antiaging: L’Oréal has disclosed the cosmetic and therapeutic use of Heat Shock Protein 27 (HSP27) for the treatment of dry, aging or diseased epithelial skin.6 This invention related to human HSP27 expression, stability and activity in skin, in addition to its application. Analysis of HSP27 expression in vernal stripping stratum corneum skin samples from pre- and post-menopausal women indicated that HSP27 expression decreased in post-menopausal women. To overcome the effects of aging such as a thinning epidermis, the development of wrinkles and loss of firmness, elasticity, density and tone, or the effects skin disorders such as desquamation, ichthyosis, hyperkeratosis, skin reconstruction or dryness, an increase of HSP27 expression is suggested. Additionally, this invention could screen for antiaging agents.

Calgranulin A for dry skin or antiaging: L’Oréal also published on human calgranulin A expression and its cosmetic or pharmaceutical use for the treatment of dry, aging or diseased epithelial skin.7 Researchers analyzed calgranulin A expression via vernal stripping of the stratum corneum from pre- and post-menopausal women, identifying a decrease in calgranulin A expression in post-menopausal women. Similar to the HSP27, an increase in calgranulin A expression is proposed to overcome effects of aging such as a thinning epidermis, the development of wrinkles and loss of firmness, elasticity, density, tone or the effects of skin disorders such as desquamation, ichthyosis, hyperkeratosis, skin reconstruction, or dryness. This invention also could be used to screen for antiaging agents.

Cleansing composition for wipes: Johnson & Johnson GmbH has patented skin care compositions including nonionic surfactants and emollients, in addition to absorbent wipes that incorporate such compositions.8 One cleansing/skin treatment composition is provided that comprises at least 90% water, a nonionic surfactant, and one or more hydrophobic emollients present in a concentration of approximately 200–4000 ppm wherein the ratio of total surfactant concentration to total hydrophobic emollient concentration is about 0.5:2.5.

A water-insoluble, absorbent substrate impregnated with a polyol polyhydroxystearate and/or a water-soluble glyceryl polyacrylate composition also is disclosed. Specifically, the substrate composition was formulated with: glycerin (and) glyceryl polyacrylatea; coco-glucoside (and) glyceryl oleateb; lauryl glucoside (and) polyglyceryl-2 dipolyhydroxystearate (and) glycerinc; glycerin; carbomerd; and fragrance (parfum) (and) p-anisic acide. This composition had an approximate 1,425 ppm total surfactant concentration and an approximate 750 ppm total emollient concentration at an estimated ratio of 1:9. Despite its low concentration of surfactant and emollient, the composition showed good cleansing ability and excellent mildness and phase stability.

Treated macroscopic particles to visibly reduce imperfections: Avon Products has disclosed a method to improve the appearance of skin using a topical composition including inorganic particles coated or embedded onto the surface of macroscopic particles.9 Also disclosed are methods of preparation and uses for the composition. To embed the inorganic particles onto the surface of macroscopic particles, three methods can be used: mechanofusion, physical adsorption and pre-emulsification into the macroscopic particles. The topical composition employing the materials is applied to skin and visibly reduces textural imperfections such as fine lines, wrinkles and scars, or color imperfections such as age spots and blemishes. The disclosed invention also relates to use of the composition in cosmetic, dermatological or industrial applications.

Caring for wrinkled skin: L’Oréal has patented a cosmetic method for the care of wrinkled skin that involves the application of two topical compositions.10 The first composition is comprised of adsorbent particles formed from an alkyl methacrylate copolymer and at least one antiwrinkle agent in a liquid form adsorbed on the surface and/or the center of the adsorbent particles. The second composition is intended for application over the first and consists of at least one compound designed to release the active agent from the aforementioned particles. An example of a gel-cream is shown in Formula 1.

Hair and Hair Care

Permanently shaping hair with reduced damage: Kao Corp. has patented a method for controlling hair shape in permanent wave or straightening applications using two compositions.11 The first contains hair-reducing substances; alpha,omega-dicarboxylic acids R1(CO2H)2 or their salts, where R1 = C3-8 alkylene; polyols; and organic alkalis or ammonia. The composition does not contain hydroxides, carbonates or hydrogen carbonates of alkali metals or alkaline earth metals. The composition is applied to all or part of hair for shape control, specifically for permanent wave-setting or straightening without hair damage.

Bleached human hair was treated with the following: a hair conditioner; the first shape-controlling composition containing adipic acid, ethanolamine thioglycolate, diammonium di thioglycolate, propylene glycol and ethanolamine; a hair rinse; a second controlling composition comprising an oxidant to firm the shape; and an additional hair conditioner. Excess contraction was prevented in the treated hair.

Treating dry hair: Lion Corp. has disclosed hair preparations that impart moisturized texture to hair and treat hair damage such as breakage or split ends with silicone-modified clay minerals, polyethylene glycol and cationic surfactants.12 The disclosed preparations comprised silicone-modified clay minerals, 50–98% polyethylene glycol of molecular weight 200–600, cationic surfactants, C14-32 alcohols and optional polyether-modified silicones.

Specifically, bentonitef was treated with dimethylpolysiloxaneg under stirring at RT for 1,202 min to create a silicone-modified clay mineral. A composition containing the modified clay mineral, polyethylene glycol, behenyltrimethylammonium chlorideh, polyether-siliconej, stearyl alcohol, hydroxypropylcellulose and water was stored at 50°C for 90 days and showed no separation or creaming. The composition imparted moisturize to hair and prevented breakage and split ends when tested by repeated brushing.

Pre-coloring hair treatment: Ikeda Bussan Co., Ltd. has been issued a patent on pre-coloring hair treatment agents containing emulsified products of liquid higher alcohols.13 When applied prior to the application of oxidative hair dyes, the compositions prevent stickiness and non-uniformity in dyeing. The pretreatment was comprised of a mixture of hydrolyzed jojoba esters and waterk, EDTA trisodium salt, and water and was used to coat a white wool fabric. The fabric was then treated with an oxidative hair dye composition. According to the company, dyeability, dyeing uniformity and the texture of the dyed fabric were improved.


Enhancing avobenzone stability: Schering-Plough Healthcare Products Inc. has patented phosphate-based emulsifiers to enhance the photostability of avobenzone in the presence of zinc oxide.14 The photostability of avobenzone after UV exposure was tested in three emulsions also containing zinc oxide. The test formulas differed from one another only in the type of emulsifier used. The addition of phosphate-based emulsifiersm, n was found to significantly improve the photostability of avobenzone in emulsions, in comparison with a traditional nonionic emulsifierp using potassium cetyl phosphate (and) hydrogenated palm glycerides. The phosphate-based emulsifiers also maintained avobenzone’s protective power against long exposures to UV radiation.


Anhydrous color composition: L’Oréal has disclosed anhydrous makeup or lip care compositions comprising macadamia oil and a wax.15 The composition contains at least one fatty phase of at least 0.5% w/w of macadamia oil or one of its derivatives, and at least one natural wax. The composition of a lipstick is shown in Formula 2.

Interesting Compositions

Solid particles dispersion: The Procter & Gamble Company has patented stable dispersions of solid particles such as pigments in a hydrophobic solvent for cosmetic use, in addition to a method for preparing the mixtures.16 The method utilizes an acrylate copolymer of long siloxane chains to create stable dispersions of solid particles in hydrophobic solvents having a solubility parameter of approximately eight or less, such as a silicone fluid. An example of a moisturizing lotion is shown in Formula 3. The moisturizing lotion disclosed was applied to the face and/or body to provide softening, moisturizing and conditioning benefits.

Wipe to visually indicate efficacy: Kimberly-Clark Worldwide Inc. has patented a cosmetic wipe that contains a first nonwoven layer having first and second opposing surfaces and a second nonwoven layer that together visually indicate the wipe’s effectiveness.17 The first nonwoven layer contains fibers formed from a polymer composition that is generally opaque in nature. The second nonwoven layer is laminated to the first surface of the first nonwoven layer and contains a colorant.

Prior to use, the colored second layer is generally not visible due to the opaque nature of the first layer. However, when sebum or other body oils are absorbed by the first layer, at least a portion of it becomes translucent or transparent so that the color of the second layer is revealed to a user. This provides a variety of benefits, including the ability for a user to evaluate if or how much sebum was removed from the skin so that makeup can be applied with confidence.

Preventing large aluminum species in AP/deo: Colgate-Palmolive Company has disclosed antiperspirant active compositions comprising an aluminum salt with a size exclusion chromatography (SEC) chromatogram exhibiting a high SEC Peak-4 intensity.18 The antiperspirant composition contains an aluminum salt with an aluminum to chloride molar ratio of approximately 0.3:1 to 3:1, exhibiting an SEC chromatogram having an SEC Peak-4 to Peak-3 intensity ratio of at least 7, and a Peak-4 intensity greater than a Peak-5 intensity in aqueous solution. The composition can optionally include zirconium. In addition, methods and processes of making the composition are described.

For the disclosed composition, a 0.72 M aluminum chloride hexahydride was buffered with 20 mmol betaine monohydrate, held at 90°C and stirred vigorously. To this solution, a 4N calcium hydroxide (20 mmol) was added dropwise over a 90 min period. A ratio of hydroxide to aluminum of 2.22 was employed in an attempt to prevent the formation of large aluminum species. The pH after the reaction was 2.56 due the low hydroxide/aluminum ratio. The SEC chromatogram showed exclusively SEC-Peak 4 and SEC-Peak 5; no SEC-Peak 3 species were observed at a retention time of approximately 15.5 min. Reproduction of this article without expressed written consent is prohibited.


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1. REB Watson et al, Clinical efficacy of a cosmetic ‘antiaging’ product, British J Dermatology, 161 419–426 (2009)
2. C Kerzendorfer et al, UVB and caffeine: Inhibiting the DNA damage response to protect against the adverse effects of UVB, J Invest Dermatol Symposium Proceedings 14 2–7 (2009)
3. Q Taihao et al, Matrix-degrading metalloproteinases in photo-aging, J Invest Dermatol Symposium Proceedings 14 20–24 (2009) 4. S Amano et al, Possible involvement of basement Membrane Damage in Skin Photoaging, J Invest Dermatol Symposium Proceedings 14 2–7 (2009)
5. MS Matsui et al, Non-sunscreen photoprotection; Antioxidants add value to a sunscreen, J lnvest Dermatol Symposium proceedings 14 56–59 (2009)
6. FR 2,924,613, Cosmetic and therapeutic use of heat shock protein 27 for treatment of dry, aging or diseased epithelial skin, L’Oréal, France (June 12, 2009)
7. FR 2,924,614, Cosmetic or therapeutic use of calgranulin A for treatment of dry, aging or diseased epithelial skin, L’Oréal, France (June 12, 2009)
8. EP 2,070,508, Skin-care compositions comprising nonionic surfactants and emollients and absorbent wipes, Johnson and Johnson GmbH, Germany (June 17, 2009)
9. WO 2009 75,994, Method of improving skin appearance using treated macroscopic particles, Avon Products Inc, USA (June 18, 2009)
10. FR 2,924,941, Cosmetic method for care of wrinkled skin, L’Oréal, France (June 19, 2009)
11. JP 2009 137,886, Hair Shape Control, Kao Corp, Japan (June 25, 2009)
12. JP 2009 137,898, Hair preparations containing silicone-modified clay minerals, polyethylene glycol, and cationic surfactants, Lion Corp, Japan (June 25, 2009) 13. JP 2009 137,923, Hair pretreatment agents containing liquid higher alcohol emulsions used before hair dyeing, Ikeda Bussan Co, Ltd, Japan (June 25, 2009)
14. US 2009 155,194, Enhanced photostability of avobenzone in the presence of zinc oxide using phosphate-based emulsifiers, Schering-Plough Healthcare Products Inc, USA (June 18, 2009)
15. WO 2009 74,963, Cosmetic composition comprising macadamia oil and a wax, L’Oréal, France (June 18, 2009)
16. WO 2009 73,384, Stable dispersions of solid particles in a hydrophobic solvent for cosmetic uses and methods of preparing the same using siloxane-containing acrylate polymers, The Procter & Gamble Company, USA (June 11, 2009)
17. WO 2009 74,895, Cosmetic wipe that provides a visual indication of its effectiveness, Kimberly-Clark Worldwide Inc, USA (June 18, 2009)
18. WO 2009 76,591, Antiperspirant active compositions comprising an aluminum salt having SEC chromatogram exhibiting high SEC Peak-4 intensity, Colgate-Palmolive Company, USA (June 18, 2009)




aHispagel 200 (INCI: Glycerin (and) Glyceryl Polyacrylate) is a product of Cognis, Monheim am Rhein, Germany.
bLamesoft PO 65 (INCI: Coco-Glucoside (and) Glyceryl Oleate) is a product of Cognis, Monheim am Rhein, Germany.
cEmulgin VL 75 (INCI: Lauryl Glucoside (and) Polyglyceryl-2 Dipolyhydroxystearate (and) Glycerin) is a product of Cognis, Monheim am Rhein, Germany.
dCarbopol Ultrez 10 (INCI: Carbomer) is a product of Lubrizol Advanced Materials/Noveon Consumer Specialties, Cleveland, USA.
eDermasoft 688 (INCI: Fragrance (parfum) (and) p-Anisic Acid) is a product of Dr. Straetmans, Hamburg, Germany.
fKunipia F (INCI: Bentonite) is a product of Kunimine Industries Co., Ltd., Tokyo.
gSH200C-200 cs (INCI: Dimethylpolysiloxane) is a product of Dow Corning Toray, Tokyo.
hArquad 22-80 (INCI: Behenyltrimethyl-ammonium Chloride) is a product of Lion Akuzo.
jKF 6011 (INCI: Polyether Silicone) is a product of Shin-Etsu.
kFloraesters K 20W (INCI: Hydrolyzed Jojoba Esters (and) Water (aqua)) is a product of Floratech, Chandler, AZ, USA.
mEmulsiphos (INCI: Potassium Cetyl Phosphate (and) Hydrogenated Palm Glycerides) is a product of Symrise, Holzminden, Germany.
nCrodafos CES (Cetearyl Alcohol (and) Dicetyl Phosphate (and) Ceteth-10 Phosphate) is a product of Croda USA, Edison, NJ, USA.
pMontanov 202 (INCI: Arachidyl Alcohol (and) Behenyl Alcohol (and) Arachidyl Glucoside) is a product of Seppic, Paris.

Biography: Charles Fox, Independent Consultant

Charles Fox

The belated Charles Fox was an independent consultant to the cosmetics and personal care industry. Formerly the director of product development for the personal products division of Warner-Lambert Company, he was also a past recipient of the Cosmetic Industry Buyers and Suppliers Award and the Society of Cosmetic Chemists Medal Award. He also served as president of the SCC.

Formula 1. Gel-cream skin treatment10

Cyclohexasiloxane (and) cyclopentasiloxane (DC 246, Dow Corning Toray) 5.00% w/w
Hydrogenated polyisobutene 5.00
Xanthan gum 0.40
Acrylates/C10-30 alkyl acrylate crosspolymer (Pemulen-TR2, Lubrizol/Noveon) 0.25
Glycerin 5.00
Dimethicone PEG-7 phosphate (Pecosil PS-100, Pheonix Chemical) 2.00
Carbomer 0.40
Sodium hydroxide 0.30
Preservatives qs
Water (aqua) qs to 100.00

Formula 2. Lipstick composition15 (in parts by weight)

Pentaerytrityl isostearate/caprate/caprylate/adipate (Supermol L, Croda) 21.70 p/wt
Macadamia ternifolia seed oil 18.70
Octyldodecyl stearate 18.70
bis-Diglyceryl polyacyladipate-2 (Softisan-649, Sasol) 2.70
PEG-45/dodecyl glycol copolymer (Elfacos ST 9, Akzo Nobel) 7.40
Hydrogenated castor oil dimer dilinoleate 2.70
Pigments 5.00
Ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate 3.70
Fragrance (parfum) 0.40
Polyglyceryl-3 beeswax 7.50
Microcrystalline wax 7.60
Mica (and) iron oxide (and) titanium oxide 3.90

Formula 3. Moisturizing lotion15

Cyclomethicone (Dow Corning 245 Fluid, Dow Corning) 17.35% w/w
Cyclopentasiloxane (and) dimethicone crosspolymer (DC 9040 Elastomer Gel, Dow Corning) 18.00
Dimethicone/PEG-10/15 crosspolymer (KSG-210, Shin-Etsu) 18.33
Propylparaben 0.20
Ethylene/acrylic acid copolymer (EA-209, Kobo Products) 7.00
Vinyl block copolymer (dispersant) 1.00
Pigment 2.00
Glycerin 25.00
Water (aqua) 8.00
Skin care actives 3.00
Methylparaben 0.12

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