As I mentioned earlier in this series, when claims are made for marketed products, they are usually supported by appropriate professionally recognized studies, which are executed by professionally recognized personnel, either in-house or at outside facilities. However, in many cases, claims can be supported by referring to studies published in peer reviewed and professionally recognized scientific journals. In this respect, I thought it would be useful to product development scientists as well as to marketing personnel to bring to your attention pertinent literature references that could be useful in developing or reinforcing certain claims or in developing new products.
A deficiency in the peripheral microcirculation can be a contributing factor in the poor appearance of aging skin, and the topical application of materials that enhance the microcirculation can be useful in enhancing facial appearance. Cristoni et al. states that Ginkgo biloba leaf extract is probably one of the most investigated among natural ingredients clinically employed by the systemic route to improve the peripheral circulation, but little has been reported on the efficacy of such extracts after topical application.