T-shaped Siloxane Microemulsion for Improved Hair Conditioning and Protection

Mar 1, 2013 | Contact Author | By: C. Hartung, PhD; U. Kortemeier; U. Westerholt; P. Winter; V. Dahl, PhD; A. Trambitas, PhD; S. Langer; P. Schwab, PhD; and B. Jha, PhD Evonik Industries AG
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Title: T-shaped Siloxane Microemulsion for Improved Hair Conditioning and Protection
silicone quatx heat protectionx color retentionx clear shampoosx conditioner rinsesx
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Keywords: silicone quat | heat protection | color retention | clear shampoos | conditioner rinses

Abstract: Described here is a T-shaped cationic siloxane incorporated in a microemulsion to provide a high silicone character material with balanced solubility and high hair substantivity. Wet and dry combability and hair feel were evaluated by panelists, while combing force measurements and differential scanning calorimetry measured conditioning and heat protection, respectively. Color washfastness also was tested using a spectrophotometer.

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C Hartung et al, T-shaped siloxane microemulsion for improved hair conditioning and protection, Cosm & Toil 128(3) 160-168 (Mar 2013)

Market Data

  • Sales for hair care climbed 6% in 2012.
  • Shampoo, conditioners and colorants were all winners, although relaxants and hair loss treatments were a bit of a disappointment.
  • Emerging market continue to be the growth driver, fueling 92% of growth in absolute terms in 2012.
  • The BRICs—particularly China, India and Brazil—continue to be top drivers.
  • Second-tier markets, such as Turkey, are also beginning to attract more attention.
  • Hair care brands have an opportunity to develop products that attract second-tier markets and pick up some of the dollars that are no longer being spent in salons.
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High molecular weight silicones are known for outstanding hair conditioning and protecting properties. A pronounced silicone character gives rise to a smooth and soft feel in hair, in addition to manageability and combability. Yet while conditioning efficacy usually increases with the molecular weight of the silicone, high molecular weight silicones are difficult to use due to their hydrophobic and viscous character. In shampoos, they can cause turbidity and/or separation, and in conditioners, their homogeneous distribution is difficult to achieve. Furthermore, buildup on hair over time can become an issue.

One approach to overcome these limitations is to incorporate organic modifications onto the silicone backbone. Especially suited for this task are cationic groups that can improve processability, solubility, deposition and substantivity. Damaged hair in particular forms anionic centers on the protein surface—where cationic conditioning agents show improved attraction and substantivity via Coulomb interactions. But even for organomodified silicones, increased molecular weight results in difficult formulation, as they too are high molecular weight silicones and thus highly viscous and difficult to handle. However, when delivered as an emulsion, small droplets of the high molecular weight silicone are pre-formed, which can be easily mixed into cosmetic formulations.

Especially beneficial to the formulator are themodynamically stable microemulsions of very fine silicone droplets, i.e., smaller than the wavelength of visible light, which are therefore also transparent. This approach using fine droplets was employed to develop a microemulsion based on high molecular weight silicone quaternium-22. Its abilities to condition and protect hair were then compared with a silicone quaternium-16 product, as discussed here.

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Figure 1. Structure of silicone quaternium-22

Figure 1. Structure of silicone quaternium-22

The silicone microemulsion described contains a unique high molecular weight T-shaped cationic siloxane.

Figure 2. Substantivity as shown by CLSM

Figure 2. Substantivity as shown by CLSM

Substantivity as shown by CLSM with covalently fluorescein-labeled silicone quaternium-22; a) reflection and b) fluorescence

Figure 3. Shampoo assessments

Figure 3. Shampoo assessments

Shampoo assessments: a) in wet conditions and b) in dry conditions

Figure 4. Conditioner assessments

Figure 4. Conditioner assessments

Conditioner assessments: a) in wet conditions and b) in dry conditions

Figure 5. Combing force measurements of shampoo

Figure 5. Combing force measurements of shampoo

Measurements of shampoo on brown hair, virgin and pre-damaged by permanent wave treatment

Figure 6. Combing force measurements of conditioner

Figure 6. Combing force measurements of conditioner

Measurements of conditioner on brown hair, virgin and pre-damaged by permanent wave treatment

Figure 7. Heat-protecting efficacy

Figure 7. Heat-protecting efficacy

Efficacy on undamaged brown hair in a conditioning rinse

Figure 8. Color washfastness measurements

Figure 8. Color washfastness measurements

Washfastness efficiency after shampooing several times

Figure 9. Color washfastness visualized on hair swatches

Figure 9. Color washfastness visualized on hair swatches

Efficiency a) directly after dyeing, b) after 20x shampoos without test microemulsion and c) after 20x shampoos with test microemulsion

Footnotes

a ABIL ME 45 (INCI: Silicone Quaternium-22 (and) Polyglyceryl-3 Caprate (and) Dipropylene Glycol (and) Cocamidopropyl Betaine) is a product of Evonik Industries AG.
b The hair used in this evaluation was from Kerling International Haarfabrik GmbH.
c The MTT 175 Tensile Tester used for this study is manufactured by Diastron.
d Movida Nr. 27 Granatrot is a product of L’Oréal Garnier.

Formula 1. Test shampoo formulation

A.
Polyquaternium-10 (PQ-10, UCare Polymer JR-400, Dow Chemicals), 0.2% w/w

B.
Water (aqua), qs to 100.0

C.
Silicone Quaternium-22 (and) Polyglyceryl-3 Caprate (and) Dipropylene Glycol (and) Cocamidopropyl Betaine (ABIL ME 45, Evonik Industries AG) ~ 0.5% active silicone quat, 1.7

D.
Sodium Laureth Sulfate (Texapon NSO, BASF/Cognis), 32.0

E.
Sodium Chloride, 0.5
Cocamidopropyl Betaine (TEGO Betaine F 50, Evonik Industries AG), 8.0

F.
PEG-18 Glyceryl Oleate/Cocoate (ANTIL 171, Evonik Industries AG), 2.5

G.
Citric Acid, qs to pH 5.5

Procedure: Dissolve A into B and C into D. Add AB, E and F to CD. Adjust the pH with G to 5.5.

Formula 2. Test conditioning rinse formulation

Silicone Quaternium-22 (and) Polyglyceryl-3 Caprate (and) Dipropylene Glycol (and) Cocamidopropyl Betaine (ABIL ME 45, Evonik Industries AG) ~ 0.3% active silicone quat, 1.0% w/w
Cetrimonium Chloride (VARISOFT 300, Evonik Industries AG), 3.0
Ceteareth-25 (TEGIN Acid C, Evonik Industries AG), 0.5
Cetyl Alcohol (TEGO Alkanol 16, Evonik Industries AG), 5.0
Citric Acid, qs to pH 4.0
Water (aqua), qs to 100.0

Procedure: Add all ingredients in water and heat to 75°C with adequate mixing. Homogenize at 75°C and cool while stirring. Adjust the pH with citric acid to 4.0.

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