Formulation Fantasies: A Discussion

Jul 1, 2013 | Contact Author | By: Jonathan Hadgraft and Majella E. Lane, University College London
Your message has been sent.
(click to close)
Contact the Author
Save
This item has been saved to your library.
View My Library
(click to close)
Save to My Library
Title: Formulation Fantasies: A Discussion
claimsx absorptionx activesx nanoparticlesx penetrationx formulationx
  • Article
  • Media
  • Keywords/Abstract
  • Related Material

Keywords: claims | absorption | actives | nanoparticles | penetration | formulation

Abstract: Numerous claims made in the popular press misrepresent the facts about formulations, and cosmetic science is not well-served by this. Here, the authors examine a number of such statements. The influence of skin creams and formulations on the penetration of actives must be communicated in a responsible manner to the public if the industry is to banish prevalent myths.

View citation for this article

J Hadgraft and ME Lane, Formulation Fantasies: A Discussion, Cosm & Toil 128(7) 480 (2013)

Market Data

  • The global cosmeceuticals market is growing at a rate of 7.7% annually, and is poised to reach $42.4 billion by 2018.
  • While wanting products that have near medical-level results, consumers also still seek green and eco-friendly options.
  • Research and tests backing up products claims are increasingly sought by consumers.
view full article

Related Material

Market Intelligence

Excerpt Only This is a shortened version or summary of the article you requested. To view the complete article, please log in or create an account. Registration is Free!

Why has this article been titled “Formulation Fantasies”? Numerous examples of claims that are made in the popular press misrepresent the facts about formulations used on the skin for personal care, and cosmetic science is not well-served by this misinformation. Here, the authors examine a number of such statements, specifically that:

1. 60% of a material placed on the skin is absorbed;
2. liposomes and nanoparticles penetrate skin;
3. there are generic, “do all” formulas;
4. the nature of the formulation does not affect permeation; and
5. it is possible to target different strata of the skin.

In relation, also discussed is the need for rational design of preparations for application to the skin.

60% Absorption?

Perhaps the first of these above statements is the most often quoted. A simple search on the Internet for the terms beauty products and skin will reveal: “Even manicures and pedicures should be avoided because studies show that you absorb through your skin about 60 percent of whatever you put on it. Some of these things can be full of harsh chemicals that are bad for your overall health and especially your baby.”1 Also, “Your skin—the body’s largest organ—absorbs up to 60 percent of the products you put on it every day, from soaps to shampoos to sunscreens. Considering that most of us use about 10 different products daily, that can really add up.”2

In fact, as most cosmetic scientists know, the skin has evolved to keep water in and other xenobiotics or foreign substances out. The outer layer, i.e., the stratum corneum (SC), is a unique membrane that is about a sixth of the thickness of a piece of paper. It is composed of dead cells that are filled with keratin and are very dense in nature. The cells overlap, as in a brick wall (see Figure 1), and the mortar that surrounds them is a complex mixture of lipids organized into bilayer arrays.

Excerpt Only This is a shortened version or summary of the article you requested. To view the complete article, please log in or create an account. Registration is Free!

This content is adapted from an article in GCI Magazine. The original version can be found here.

 

Close

Figure 1. Brick-and-mortar structure of the stratum corneum with possible permeation pathways

Figure 1. Brick-and-mortar structure of the stratum corneum with possible permeation pathways

The cells overlap, as in a brick wall (see Figure 1), and the mortar that surrounds them is a complex mixture of lipids organized into bilayer arrays.

Figure 2. Niacinamide concentration depth profiles in vivo from 5% solutions in various vehicles

Figure 2. Niacinamide concentration depth profiles in vivo from 5% solutions  in various vehicles

The results, shown in Figure 2, reveal clear differences in the amounts of niacinamide having penetrated into the SC of the forearm after a 30-min period.

Figure 3. Left: a schematic looking down on the skin surface; Right: Effects when a film of lipid coats the corneocyte

Figure 3. Left: a schematic looking down on the skin surface; Right: Effects when a film of lipid coats the corneocyte

Figure 3. Left: a schematic looking down on the skin surface, showing corneocytes in blue and intercellular lipids in green; molecules free to diffuse are yellow and those that are not are red. Right: Effects when a film of lipid coats the corneocyte

Figure 4. Relationship between the amount of niacinamide and the amount of solvent in the stratum corneum

Figure 4. Relationship between the amount of niacinamide and the amount of solvent in the stratum corneum

Figure 4. Relationship between the amount of niacinamide, determined in vivo in the stratum corneum, and the amount of solvent in the stratum corneum, determined by confocal Raman

Next image >

 
 

Close

It's Free...

Register or Log in to get full access to this content

Registration includes:

  • Access to all premium content
  • One click ingredient sample requests
  • Save articles in the My Library tool

Create an Account or Log In