Characterizing the Anti-aging Effects of Hesperomeles heterophylla Hook Leaf Extract

Apr 1, 2013 | Contact Author | By: Tania Milena Cortázar, Mauricio Guzmán Alonso and Juan Carlos Salgado, Belcorp
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Title: Characterizing the Anti-aging Effects of Hesperomeles heterophylla Hook Leaf Extract
Hesperomeles heterophylla Hook leavesx ECM componentsx oxidative stress protectionx gene expressionx anti-agingx
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Keywords: Hesperomeles heterophylla Hook leaves | ECM components | oxidative stress protection | gene expression | anti-aging

Abstract: Hesperomeles heterophylla Hook leaf extract was evaluated as described here for its application in anti-aging skin care. This traditional extract exhibited antioxidant and protective properties on the extracellular matrix due to high levels of polyphenols and flavonoids. Further, a formulation containing 0.35% extract was tested in vivo and showed promising effects on wrinkles and skin elasticity.

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TM Cortázar, MG Alonso and JC Salgado, Characterizing the Anti-aging Effects of Hesperomeles heterophylla Hook Leaf Extract, Cosmet & Toil 128(4) 268 (2013)

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  • Global demand for organic personal care was more than $7.6 billion in 2012, and is expected to reach $13.2 billion by 2018.
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  • Widening distribution channels and new product development have contributed to growth.
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A combination of factors affects skin functionality and appearance. Internal factors modulate the expression of key genes involved in skin homeostasis. Such intrinsic aging is genetically regulated and follows a chronological clock inside of cells, whereas environmental factors are responsible for actinic aging. Together, these factors target important metabolic pathways in skin cells that trigger the signs of aging, such as skin roughness and loss of biomechanical properties. At the molecular level, collagen synthesis is reduced in aging skin cells and cells damaged by UV radiation.1 The expression of collagen-degrading matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is upregulated in aged cells and cells exposed to UV, infrared radiation or excessive heat.2, 3 Also, reactive oxygen species are implicated in the deleterious effects of aging.1, 4 In an effort to develop a natural active to address these skin aging issues, the efficacy of Hesperomeles heterophylla leaf extract was studied as a novel natural source for anti-aging actives that provide multiple skin benefits, as described in this paper.

H. heterophylla Habitat

For the past five million years, the Andes Mountains in South America lifted, eventually settling and creating the Andean forests—and on the top of these, the páramo and subpáramo ecosystems.5, 6 These ecosystems are located discontinuously from altitudes of approximately 2,500 m to the line of perpetual snow, at about 5,000 m. The lower density of the atmospheric layer at these high altitudes allows for greater UV radiation intensities as well as greater dissipation of light energy. In relation, one of the most important research fields in Latin America is the scientific validation of traditional knowledge for the use of biodiversity and its applications.7

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Table 1. Primer sets to amplify the fragment corresponding to selected genes

Table 1. Primer sets to amplify the fragment corresponding  to selected genes

Primers sets were used to amplify the fragment corresponding to selected genes (see Table 1).

Table 2. Composition of formulations tested

Table 2. Composition of formulations tested

H. heterophylla leaf extract also was evaluated in vivo and compared with the same formula without the extract (see Table 2).

Table 3. Phytochemical analysis of H. heterophylla leaf extract

Table 3. Phytochemical analysis of H. heterophylla leaf extract

TLC analyses showed the H. heterophylla leaf extract to be rich in polyphenols and flavonoids (see Table 3); the total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant properties of the extract are described in Table 4.

Table 4. Antioxidant properties

Table 4. Antioxidant properties

TLC analyses showed the H. heterophylla leaf extract to be rich in polyphenols and flavonoids (see Table 3); the total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant properties of the extract are described in Table 4.

Table 5. Effects of H. heterophylla leaf extract on skin cell viability

Table 5. Effects of H. heterophylla leaf extract on skin cell viability

The H. heterophylla leaf extract did not decrease normal skin human keratinocyte (NHEK) or fibroblast (NHDF) viability in the concentrations used (see Table 5).

Table 6. Table 6. EMC component gene expression in the presence of H. heterophylla leaf extract

Table 6. EMC component gene expression in the presence of H. heterophylla leaf extract

The TGF-β treatment (10 ng/mL) clearly stimulated the expression of COL1A1, COL3A1 and ELN, and inhibited MMP-1, validating the assay (see Table 6).

Table 7. Skin extension and relaxation parameters (*p < 0.05)

Table 7. Skin extension and relaxation parameters (*p < 0.05)

For parameters R5 and R7, the differences between the formulation with the placebo and with the first day were significant (* p < 0.05) by days 14 and 28 (see Table 7).

Figure 1. Gallic acid standard plot

Figure 1. Gallic acid standard plot

The TPC was expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE) in mg/g extract, obtained from the standard curve of gallic acid solutions established by plotting concentration versus absorbance (see Figure 1).

Figure 2. DPPH radical-scavenging activity

Figure 2. DPPH radical-scavenging activity

The extract exhibited extremely significant (***: p < 0.001), dose-dependent activity with 95% scavenging capacity at 50 µg/mL (see Figure 2).

Figure 3. Peroxide production by UV-irradiated NHEK cells

Figure 3. Peroxide production by UV-irradiated NHEK cells

H. heterophylla leaf extract protected keratinocytes in a concentration-dependent manner from UV-induced H2O2 production (see Figure 3); 45 min of pretreatment with the extract at 37 µg/mL resulted in a significant 63% reduction of UV-induced H2O2 production (*** : p < 0.001), compared with the untreated control.

Figure 4. Gene expression of ECM components

Figure 4. Gene expression of ECM components

On the other hand, the extract strongly stimulated the expression of ELN, COL1A1 and COL3A1 (see Figure 4).

Figure 5. Effects on skin roughness

Figure 5. Effects on skin roughness

Variations of the roughness parameter Rz, i.e. maximum roughness average, also were measured (see Figure 5).

Figure 6. Changes in skin surface topography of crow’s-feet area

Figure 6. Changes in skin surface topography of crow’s-feet area

Figure 6 shows a topographic image of the skin surface, comparing the appearance of the crow’s-feet area on the first day with the same area on day 28.

Figure 7. Variations in skin parameter R0

Figure 7. Variations in skin parameter R0

At 28 days, volunteers’ skin could be extended the least (see Figure 7), and the differences both with the placebo and with the first day were significant (* p < 0.05).

Figure 8. Variation in skin relaxation behavior; a) net elasticity, R5, and b) parameter R7

Figure 8. Variation in skin relaxation behavior; a) net elasticity, R5, and b) parameter R7

Net elasticity (R5), i.e., the ratio of immediate retraction to immediate extension, increased to its greatest extent at the end of the study (see Figure 8a). The ratio of immediate retraction to maximum extension (R7) increased over the duration of the study (see Figure 8b).

Footnotes

a Plastic powder D-400 (INCI: HDI/Trimethylol Hexyllactone Crosspolymer (and) Silica) is an ingredient manufactured by Toshiki International, Tokyo.

b Regu-fade (INCI: Resveratrol) is a product manufactured by DSM Nutritional Products, Basel, Switzerland.

c Syner-C (INCI: Sodium Ascorbyl Glucoside (and) Hippophae Rhamnoides Fruit Extract (and) Maltodextrin (and) Portulaca Oleracea Extract) is a product manufactured by Presperse, Somerset, N.J., USA.

d Clerilys W (INCI: Water (aqua) (and) Cucumis Sativa (Cucumber) Extract (and) Morus Alba Extract (and) Hibiscus Sabdariffa Extract (and) Fermented Grape Extract) is a product of Greentech S.A., Saint Beauzire, France.

e Exo-T (INCI: Water (aqua) (and) Butylene Glycol (and) Vibrio Exopolysaccharide Extract) is a product manufactured by Lucas Meyer, Paris.

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