Stimulating Epidermal Regeneration with Plant-derived Stem Cells

May 1, 2010 | Contact Author | By: Daniel Schmid, PhD, and Fred Zülli, PhD, Mibelle Biochemistry
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Title: Stimulating Epidermal Regeneration with Plant-derived Stem Cells
epidermal and plant stem cellsx colony forming efficiencyx three-dimensional epidermisx UV protectionx
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Keywords: epidermal and plant stem cells | colony forming efficiency | three-dimensional epidermis | UV protection

Abstract: Here, the authors describe mechanisms of stem cells and their potential for antiaging benefits. Cultures established from apple and grape varieties using a specialized culture technology revealed that aside from stimulating colony forming efficiency (CFE) and organogenic potential, the extracts improved the maintenance of epidermal stem cells. In addition, the grape extract provided UV protection.

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D Schmid and F Zulli, Stimulating epidermal regeneration with plant-derived stem cells, Cosm & Toil 125(5) 61-70 (May 2010)

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Stem cells possess three key properties: they are unspecialized, they can renew themselves over time and they can develop into cells with specific functions. Stem cells are broadly classified into two types—embryonic and adult stem cells. Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent, meaning they can develop into all cell types in the body and are therefore capable of forming an entire organism. In contrast, adult stem cells generally are multipotent and have the ability to develop into the different cell types within the tissue in which they are found, a process also known as differentiation.

Adult stem cells are found in virtually all tissues. Through asymmetrical division, adult stem cells maintain a pool of their own cell type to provide continual repair and regeneration benefits for an organism throughout its life span. Without a pool of effective, proliferating adult stem cells, the continual loss of fully differentiated cells cannot be replenished and the tissue soon loses the ability to function.

Stem Cell Research

In recent years, stem cell research has advanced considerably and new findings have revolutionized the field of regenerative medicine. Traditionally, embryonic stem cells were believed to be the only source of pluripotent cells. However, recent discoveries have shown that it also is possible to restore adult stem cells or differentiated cells to a pluripotent state. Early methods to restore pluripotency or dedifferentiation required substantial genetic modification of the cell, typically using a virus to insert specific genes. The latest experimental results have shown that restoring pluripotency is also possible without altering the underlying DNA sequence. These methods typically use a defined group of small molecules to establish the required gene expression pattern through an intricate web of normal epigenetic control mechanisms that do not alter the DNA.


Lab Practical: Using Stem Cell Extracts

  • These materials are white and do not influence the color of the finished formula.
  • The materials have no characteristic odor and do not influence the scent of the scent of the finished formula.
  • The materials are water-soluble. Sodium benzoate at 0.3% is recommended for preservation.
  • The materials are suggested at pH levels of 4.0-8.0; they tolerate pH 2.0-10.0.
  • The materials are recommended for use at 0.4-1.0% and clinically tested at 0.04-1.25% in vitro.
  • The materials can be incorporated into most cosmetic and dermatological formulations as in emulsions (o/w, w/o) and gels, except water-free formulations.
  • It is recommended that formulators dissolve the materials into the aqueous phase (dissolvable up to 20% in water) and add them pre-solved during the cooling phase (< 60°C).

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Figure 1. Epidermal stem cells produce more rapidly dividing transient amplifying cells

Figure 1. Epidermal stem cells produce more rapidly dividing transient amplifying cells

Turnover of the epidermis is mediated by undifferentiated stem and progenitor cells, which reside in the basal layer of the epidermis.

Figure 2. Cells expressing CD34 and alpha6-integrin after 3 passages

Figure 2. Cells expressing CD34 and alpha6-integrin after 3 passages

The percentage of cells expressing the markers CD34 and alpha6-integrin increased from 6% to 68% during the first three passages of culture, as shown here.

Figure 3. Analysis of CFE

Figure 3. Analysis of CFE

For analysis of CFE, cells are seeded at low density and allowed to form colonies, as shown here.

Figure 4. Apple stem cell extract stimulates the CFE of epidermal stem cells

Figure 4. Apple stem cell extract stimulates the CFE of epidermal stem cells

Compared with a control culture of epidermal stem cells cultured in a medium without the extract, the CFE was increased by up to 100% in the presence of 0.04% apple stem cell extract, as shown here.

Figure 5. Apple stem cell extract maintains the capacity to form organogenic potential, i.e., a pluristratified epidermis

Figure 5. Apple stem cell extract maintains the capacity to form organogenic potential, i.e., a pluristratified epidermis

A young culture of epidermal stem cells (passage 5) was found to generate a three-dimensional epidermis both in the presence and absence of the apple stem cell extract, as shown here.

Figure 6. Grape stem cell extract stimulates the CFE of epidermal stem cells and protects against UV-induced loss of function

Figure 6. Grape stem cell extract stimulates the CFE of epidermal stem cells and protects against UV-induced loss of function

The treatment of epidermal stem cells with a grape stem cell extractc was found to increase CFE by 86%, as shown here.

Footnotes [Schmid 125(5)]

a Progenitor Cell Targeted culture media is developed by CELLnTEC Advanced Cell Systems, Bern, Switzerland.

b PhytoCellTec Malus Domestica (INCI: Malus Domestica Fruit Cell Culture Extract) is a product of Mibelle Biochemistry, Buchs, Switzerland.

c PhytoCellTec Solar Vitis (INCI: Vitis Vinifera Fruit Cell Extract) is a product of Mibelle Biochemistry, Buchs, Switzerland.

 

Formula 1. Grape stem cell extract sun cream

Water (aqua), qs to 100% w/w
Phenoxyethanol (and) Methylparaben (and) Ethylparaben (and) Butylparaben (and) Propylparaben (and) Isobutylparaben, 1.00
Magnesium Aluminum Silicate, 1.00
Galactoarabinan, 0.20
Methylene bis-Benzotriazolyl Tetramethylbutylphenol, 3.00
Diethylhexyl Carbonate, 5.00
Ethylhexyl Methoxycinnamate, 4.00
C12-15 Alkyl Benzoate, 2.00
Titanium Dioxide, 0.50
Isostearic Acid, 0.30
Glyceryl Stearate Citrate, 1.50
Cetearyl Alcohol, 1.00
Glyceryl Stearate, 0.50
Myristyl Myristate, 0.30
Ethylhexyl Triazone, 0.30
Xanthan Gum, 0.50
Fragrance (parfum), 0.25
Vitis Vinifera (Grape) Fruit Cell Extract (and) Isomalt (and) Lecithin (and) Sodium Benzoate (and) Water (aqua) (PhytoCellTec Solar Vitis, Mibelle), 0.40

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