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Dec 13, 2005 | 11:30 PM CST
By: Charles Fox
Evaluating the maturity of cornified envelopes: Hirao has published a review on the significance of cornified envelopes in barrier function of the stratum corneum. Cornified envelopes (CE), which are rigid and insoluble structures surrounding the corneocytes, are assembled by crosslinking of several precursor proteins by transglutaminases. The CE provide the basis for barrier function of the stratum corneum.
Dec 13, 2005 | 11:26 PM CST
By: Valerie D. Callender and Cherie M. Young, Howa…
This article surveys the racial differences of hair, and then focuses on African-Americans, their hair grooming practices and how these practices relate to the common hair and scalp disorders unique to this population.
Dec 13, 2005 | 11:18 PM CST
By: Zoe Diana Draelos, MD, Dermatology Consulting …
Cosmeceuticals have numerous mechanisms of action, affecting cellular communication, receptors, barrier function, exfoliation, inflammation, oxidation, pigmentation and photoprotection. Working together, the dermatologist and the cosmetic chemist can find the pathways and the actives to reduce skin aging.
Dec 13, 2005 | 11:17 PM CST
By: Charles Fox, Independent Consultant
Lin et al report that alpha-lipoic acid is ineffective as a topical antioxidant. This contradicts a previously published study that proposed alpha-lipoic acid as an antioxidant for topical application to protect the skin against ultraviolet photodamage including skin cancer and photoaging changes.
Dec 13, 2005 | 10:58 PM CST
By: Charles Fox, Independent Consultant
Polypodium leucotomos extract to decrease UV-induced damage: Exposure of human skin to sunlight containing UVA and UVB radiation exposes the skin to deleterious effects such as sunburn, immune suppression, pigmentary changes, photoaging and skin cancer. The mechanism of such cutaneous damage induction is complex, but can be broadly divided into direct oxygen-dependent damage through absorption of photons, and oxidative damage caused by formation of free radicals and reactive oxygen species. This is why antioxidants have been increasingly studied as inhibitors or quenchers of UV-induced cutaneous damage.
Dec 13, 2005 | 10:53 PM CST
By: Larry Plonsker, CHemical Network Associates
How are copyrights administered? Intellectual property encompasses ideas or creative works in a form that can enable others to produce or recreate them. Protection of these properties is through patents, trademarks, trade secrets or copyrights. All of these protection instruments allow the owner to prohibit others from using the covered discovery or expression, except with their permission, as in a license. The United States Patent and Trademark Office is responsible for processing patent and trademark applications and disseminating patent and trademark information. Unlike patents and trademarks, copyrights are administered by the Library of Congress, through its Copyright Office.
Dec 13, 2005 | 10:33 PM CST
By: Vincent A.L. Wortel, Cornelis Verboom, Johann …
The authors introduce a method to use rheological properties (such as dynamic viscosity and yield stress) to describe and predict skin sensory attributes (such as cohesiveness) of cosmetic products. This is a first step in learning to use emulsion structure to predict sensory attributes.
Dec 13, 2005 | 10:28 PM CST
By: Charles Fox, Independent Silicones
Vitamin P on skin dullness: Hosokawa reviews the effect of vitamin P (bioflavonoids) on skin dullness and its application to cosmetics. The color of the skin is known to reflect the blood flow within it. Because the concentration of melanin is low in the lip, and the horny layer in the lip area is thin, the dullness of lip was presumed to be influenced easily by the color of blood. Researchers studied the physiological differences between colorful and dull-colored lips by measuring blood flow and oxygen saturation. They found that dull-colored lips and the corner of the lips (generally dull-colored compared to the center of lips) show relatively poor blood flow and a lower degree of oxygenation.
Dec 13, 2005 | 10:24 PM CST
By: Hongbo Zhai and H.I. Maibach
Superficial wounds may be evaluated and treated in the cosmetic field. However, with natural wounds it is difficult to evaluate the effects of therapy upon the repair process because natural wounds may vary according to several factors, such as wound induction (physical or chemical), depth (superficial or deep), size (regular or irregular), site-to-site variability, and environmental factors (infection or not).
Dec 13, 2005 | 10:20 PM CST
By: Dolores T. Kenney, Esq., Olson & Hierl, Ltd.
Laboratory notebooks are important corporate records that should clearly show tests performed in the lab, materials used and when they were used. They can provide essential evidence to the Patent Office in the event that questions of patent rights arise.