Liquid Crystal O/W Emulsions to Mimic Lipids and Strengthen Skin Barrier Function

Jul 1, 2009 | Contact Author | By: In-Young Kim, PhD; Sayaka Nakagawa; Kinka Ri, PhD; Satoru Hashimoto, PhD; and Hitoshi Masaki, PhD, Nikkol Group
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Title: Liquid Crystal O/W Emulsions to Mimic Lipids and Strengthen Skin Barrier Function
liquid crystalx multilayerx bound waterx barrier functionx emulsifierx moisturizing effectx
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Keywords: liquid crystal | multilayer | bound water | barrier function | emulsifier | moisturizing effect

Abstract: In the present study, the authors produced liquid crystalline (LC) o/w emulsions whose structure mimics the skin’s intercellular lipids. These emulsions are shown in cosmetic formulations to strengthen skin barrier functions while maintaining stability at higher temperatures than that of the skin.

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Intercellular lipids of the stratum corneum (SC) form a lamellar structure (LS) that consists mainly of ceramides, cholesterols and fatty acids as amphiphilic substances, and that demonstrates significant skin barrier function.1, 2 This natural liquid crystalline (LC) structure has a bi-continuous composition of water and amphiphilic lipids, and simultaneously possesses high moisturizing and water loss prevention effects.3

In the past, much work has been devoted to preparing emulsions using the self-organization of structures formed in mixed systems of surfactants and amphiphilic lipids—such as fatty alcohols, fatty acids, lecithin, polyglycerol alkyl ethers and mono alkyl phosphates, among others—to develop bio-mimetic LC emulsions.4-7 In relation, Suzuki et al. disclosed work in this field describing a bio-mimetic lamellar LC system based instead on synthetic ceramides.8 Figure 1 exemplifies a schematic illustration of oil droplets surrounded by liquid crystals, forming LC o/w emulsions.

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Table 1. Compositions (% w/w) of the tested emulsions

 Table 1. Compositions (% w/w) of the tested emulsions

Table 2. Composition of the tested emulsions containing various amounts of water

 Table 2. Composition of the tested emulsions containing various amounts of water 

Figure 1. Schematic illustration of oil-in-liquid

 Figure 1. Schematic illustration of oil-in-liquid

Figure 2. Molecular structures of materials for preparation of the LCB

 Figure 2. Molecular structures of materials for preparation of the LCB

Figure 3. LCB/squalane/water phase system

 Figure 3. LCB/squalane/water phase system

Figure 4. Optical micrographs of LC

 Figure 4. Optical micrographs of LC 

Figure 5. TEM micrograph

F igure 5. TEM micrograph

Figure 6. Micrographs of LC o/w emulsions (Table 1c) at increasing temperatures

 Figure 6. Micrographs of LC o/w emulsions (Table 1c) at increasing temperatures

 

Figure 7. Micrographs of LC o/w emulsions (Table 1c) applied on the inside forearm for 3 hr and 6 hr

 Figure 7. Micrographs of LC o/w emulsions (Table 1c) applied on the inside forearm for 3 hr and 6 hr

Figure 8. Bound water of LC o/w emulsions compared with non-LC o/w emulsions

Figure 8. Bound water of LC o/w emulsions compared with non-LC o/w emulsions

Figure 9. Changes in skin conductance as a function of time

 Figure 9. Changes in skin conductance as a function of time

Figure 10. The changes of TEWL on the inner thighs

 Figure 10. The changes of TEWL on the inner thighs

Figure 11. Images of the SC stripped off the skin

 Figure 11. Images of the SC stripped off the skin

Kim Lipid footnotes

 a All materials used to prepare the LC base were obtained from Nikko Chemicals, Japan. 

bThe TKS1706 SAXS device used was from 

Anton Paar in Germany.

c The T.K. Homomixer used for this study is a device from Tokushu Kika Kogyo Co. Ltd., Japan.

d The BX50 polarized light microscope and FX380 CCD digital camera used for this study are devices from Olympus, Japan. 

e The JEM1200EX transmittance electron microscopic used in this study is a device from JEOL Co. Ltd., Japan.

f The 220C DSC analysis meter used for this study is a device from Seiko Instruments Inc., Japan.

g The SKICON 200 hydrometer used for this study is a device from I.B.S. Co., Ltd. 

h The AS-TW2 water loss meter used for this study is a device from Asahi Biomed, I.B.S. Co., Ltd.

j The TVB-10 viscometer used for this test is a device from Toki Sangyo Co. Ltd.

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