A Dermatological View: Antioxidant Inhibits UV Erythema In Vivo in Humans

Mar 1, 2007 | Contact Author | By: Hongbo Zhai, MD, and Howard I. Maibach, MD, University of California at San Francisco School of Medicine
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Title: A Dermatological View: Antioxidant Inhibits UV Erythema In Vivo in Humans
antioxidantx skinx emulsionx UVRx erythemax
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Keywords: antioxidant | skin | emulsion | UVR | erythema

Abstract: Described here was an in vivo model to determine antioxidative capacity of a topical skin care emulsion versus the emulsion’s vehicle on human skin that was exposed to UVR. Results suggest the test emulsion and its vehicle control inhibited the induction of erythema and reduced inflammation caused by the UV exposure.

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Healthy skin possesses an antioxidant defense system against oxidative stress. However, overexposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) can overwhelm this defense system’s capacity, leading to skin disorders such as sunburn, photosensitivity reactions or immunologic suppression, as well as photoaging, malignant skin tumors and other long-term sequelae. Application of topically exogenous antioxidants may prevent or minimize such damage.

A previous column by these authors described a rapid, accurate and facile method to quantify the antioxidative capacity of topical formulations in vitro. The present article introduces an in vivo model using a photochemiluminescence device and biophysical methods to determine the antioxidative capacity of a topical o/w skin care emulsion with and without vitamin E. The human skin tested was exposed to UVR.

Materials and Methods

Subjects: Ten healthy Caucasians (three male and seven female; mean age 47 ± 10) of the skin types II or III were enrolled. The Committee on Human Research at the University of California, San Francisco approved this study. 

Test materials: A facial skin care o/w emulsion was obtained with pH balanced at 5.5% and 22.5% oil content. The emulsion contained water, petrolatum, myreth-3 myristate, glycerin, cetearyl alcohol, tocopheryl acetate, ceteareth-20, dimethicone, sodium PCA, sodium citrate, sodium carbomer, fragrance, benzyl alcohol, methylparaben and propylparaben. The active ingredient in the test emulsion was 2.3% vitamin E as tocopheryl acetate; the vehicle control contained no vitamin E but was otherwise identical. Study design: The study was randomized, double blind and placebo-controlled.

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Figure 1. Visual scores

Figure 1. Visual scores  

Figure 2. Skin color

Figure 2. Skin color  

Figure 3. Skin blood flow volume

Figure 3. Skin blood flow volume  

Figure 4. Skin capacitance

Figure 4. Skin capacitance 

Zhai: Antioxidant Footnotes

a Sebamed, Sebapharma GmbH & Co., Boppard, Germany. Sebamed is a registered trademark of Sebapharma GmbH & Co.

b A bank of four unfiltered Westinghouse FS20 tubes from National Biological Corp., USA, was used.

c The IL443 Phototherapy radiometer equipped with SCS280 sharp-cut (long pass) filter is a product of International Light Inc., USA.

d Vapometer SWL-3, Delfin Technologies Ltd., Kuopio, Finland

e Laser Blood Flow Monitor MBF3D, Moor Instruments, Axminster, England, and Acaderm Inc., Menlo Park, Calif., USA

f Minolta CR-300, Osaka, Japan, and Acaderm Inc., Menlo Park, Calif., USA

 

g CM 820, Courage & Khazaka, Cologne, Germany, and Acaderm Inc., Menlo Park, Calif., USA

h D-squame, CuDerm Corp., Dallas, USA. 

D-squame is a registered trademark of CuDerm Corp.

j Photochem, Analytik Jena AG, Jena, Germany, and Analytik Jena USA, Inc., The Woodlands,Texas, USA. Photochem is a registered trademark of Analytik Jena AG. 

k SigmaStat, SPSS Science, Chicago, USA. SigmaStat is a registered trademark of SPSS Science

 

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