Evaluating Essential Oils in Cosmetics: Antioxidant Capacity and Functionality

Jun 1, 2010 | Contact Author | By: P. Ziosi, S. Manfredini, S. Vertuani, V. Ruscetta, M. Radice and G. Sacchetti, Università Degli Studi di Ferrara; and R. Bruni, Università Degli Studi di Parma
Your message has been sent.
(click to close)
Contact the Author
Save
This item has been saved to your library.
View My Library
(click to close)
Save to My Library
Title: Evaluating Essential Oils in Cosmetics: Antioxidant Capacity and Functionality
essential oilsx antioxidantsx cosmetic formulationsx in vitro evaluationsx photochemiluminescencex
  • Article
  • Media
  • Keywords/Abstract

Keywords: essential oils | antioxidants | cosmetic formulations | in vitro evaluations | photochemiluminescence

Abstract: In the present work, the antioxidant capacities of three essential oils derived from basil and thyme were evaluated using a photochemiluminescence (PCL)-based assay. In addition, since the base formulation can affect the antioxidant activity of oils contained therein, ingredient interactions within final formulations were investigated.

View citation for this article

P Ziosi et al, Evaluating essential oils in cosmetics: Antioxidant capacity and functionality, Cosm & Toil 125(6) 32-40 (Jun 2010)

Excerpt Only This is a shortened version or summary of the article you requested. To view the complete article, please log in or create an account. Registration is Free!

Skin constantly is exposed to environmental oxidative stressors such as ultraviolet radiation (UVR), air pollutants, chemical oxidants and aerobic microorganisms. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are considered major contributors to skin aging, cancer and certain skin disorders since they react negatively with DNA, proteins and unsaturated fatty acids. In addition, while healthy skin possesses an innate antioxidant defense system, ROS and other free radicals or excessive free radical attack can overwhelm the cutaneous antioxidant capacity, depleting the skin’s antioxidants and damaging biomolecules such as lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. This further leads to oxidative damage, skin cancer, immunosuppression and premature skin aging. Therefore, supplying exogenous antioxidants topically to the endogenous antioxidant system is one approach to preventing or minimizing ROS-induced photoaging.

With growing consumer appeal for natural and organic products, botanical extracts have become among the most commonly used ingredients in OTC antiaging cosmetic preparations. More recently, claims have focused on their antioxidant properties and ability to modulate certain types of environmental damage. Essential oils in particular, traditionally used for aromatic properties, have good penetration into the skin, which enhances their efficacy.

In the present article, the authors evaluate the chemical composition and biological activities—i.e., antioxidative, antibacterial and antifungal—of wild Amazonian basil Ocimum micranthum Willd. (also known as O. campechianum Mill.) Labiatae essential oil, and compare these properties with those of commercially available common basil Ocimum basilicum and Thymus vulgaris essential oils. In addition, in view of their high antioxidant capacities, the oils were further assessed to determine if their functional capacity could be expressed in finished cosmetic products, and whether the type of formulation could influence the expression of their antioxidant activity.


Lab Practical: Using Essential Oils

  • It is important to check the safety information for each essential oil.
  • Essential oils are potent and small amounts of them go a long way.
  • Add an antioxidant to essential oil-containing formulations to keep peroxides at low levels; there is evidence that hydroperoxides formed from some components of essential oils can cause skin sensitivity.
  • Essential oils must be added at the end of the emulsification process (under 50°C)
  • Formulations with essential oils should be stored in a cool dry place, away from heat and light, to avoid degradation and rancidity.

Excerpt Only This is a shortened version or summary of the article you requested. To view the complete article, please log in or create an account. Registration is Free!

 

Close

Table 1. Identification of Essential Oil Constituents

Table 1. Identification of Essential Oil Constituents

Essential oil samples from three separate distillations were analyzed and the relative peak areas for individual constituents averaged.

Table 2. Essential Oil-containing and Control Test Formulations

Table 2. Essential Oil-containing and Control Test Formulations

After evaluating the antioxidant capacity of pure essentials oils, a systematic study using PCL was conducted of various essential oil-containing formulations to determine the efficacy of the oils in topical antiaging applications.

Figure 1. Antioxidant capacity values

Figure 1. Antioxidant capacity values

Values of the antioxidant capacity of essential oils compared with 6-hydroxy- 2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acida and α-tocopherol

Figure 2. Lipid-soluble antioxidant capacity of cosmetic formulations with T. vulgaris

Figure 2. Lipid-soluble antioxidant capacity of cosmetic formulations with <em>T. vulgaris</em>

 Lipid-soluble antioxidant capacity of cosmetic formulations with T. vulgaris, compared with their respective base, corresponding to the activity expressed as mmol of 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acida for each gram of tested product

Figure 3. Lipid-soluble antioxidant capacity of cosmetic formulations with O. basilicum

Figure 3. Lipid-soluble antioxidant capacity of cosmetic formulations with <em>O. basilicum</em>

Lipid-soluble antioxidant capacity of cosmetic formulations with O. basilicum, compared with their respective base, corresponding to the activity expressed as mmol of 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acida for each gram of tested product

Figure 4. Lipid-soluble antioxidant capacity of cosmetic formulations with O. micranthum

Figure 4. Lipid-soluble antioxidant capacity of cosmetic formulations with <em>O. micranthum</em>

Lipid-soluble antioxidant capacity of cosmetic formulations with O. micranthum, compared with their respective base, corresponding to the activity expressed as mmol of 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acida for each gram of tested product

Figure 5. Lipid-soluble antioxidant capacity of cosmetic formulations with essential oils

Figure 5. Lipid-soluble antioxidant capacity of cosmetic formulations with essential oils

Lipid-soluble antioxidant capacity of cosmetic formulations with essential oils, compared with their respective bases, corresponding to the activity expressed as mmol of 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acida for each gram of tested product

Footnotes [Manfredini 125(6)]

a Trolox is a registered trademark of Hoffman- LaRoche.

b Basil oil (INCI: Ocimum Basilicum Oil) was obtained by Sigma-Aldrich, Milan.

c Thyme oil (INCI: Thymus Vulgaris Oil) is a product of Extrasynthese, Genay, France.

d The Fisons 9130-9000 series gas chromatograph is a product of Rodano, Milano, Italy.

e The Fisons EL980 processor is a product of Rodano, Milano, Italy.

f The MEGA SE52 poly-5% diphenyl-95%- dimethyl-siloxane bonded phase column is a product of Mega, Legnano, Italy.

g The HPLC filter used for this study was obtained from Chemtek Analitica, Bologna, Italy.

h The ACL and ACW kits used for this study are products of AnalytikJena, Jena, Germany.

Formula 1. Antioxidant o/w emulsion

Glyceryl Stearate (and) Ceteareth-20 (and) Ceteareth-12 (and) Cetearyl Alcohol (and) Cetyl Palmitate (Emulgade SE, Cognis), 8.0% w/w
Cetearyl Alcohol (Lanette O, Polichimica), 1.5
Limnanthes alba seed oil (Meadowfoam Seed Oil, Pharma Cosm Polli), 3.0
Decyl Oleate (Cetiol V, Cognis), 6.0
Dicaprylyl Carbonate (Cetiol CC, Cognis), 4.0
Lonicera caprifolium flower extract (and) Lonicera japonica flower extract (Plantservative WSR, Bregaglio), 0.25
Tocopherol (and) Helianthus annuus seed oil (Toco 70, Pharma Cosm Polli), 0.1
Glycerin (Glycerin, Polichimica), 3.0
Thymus vulgaris Oil, 0.5
Ocimum micranthum Oil, 0.5
Water (aqua), qs to 100.00

Formula 2. Antioxidant gel emulsion

Decyl Oleate (Cetiol V, Cognis), 2.0% w/w
Cyclopentasiloxane (Silicone Fluid 245, Univar), 3.0
Dimethicone (Silicone Fluid 350, Univar), 1.0
Limnanthes Alba Seed Oil (Meadowfoam Seed Oil, Pharma Cosm Polli), 2.0
Dicaprylyl Carbonate (Cetiol CC, Cognis), 2.0
Glycerin (Glycerin, Polichimica), 5.0
Panthenol (Panthenol, Prodotti Gianni), 1.0
Ammonium Acryloyldimethyltaurate/VP Copolymer (Aristoflex AVC, Clariant), 1.2
Lonicera Caprifolium Flower Extract (and) Lonicera Japonica Flower Extract (Plantservative WSR, Bregaglio), 0.25
Water (aqua), qs to 100.00
Ocimum Basilicum Oil, 0.5
Ocimum Micranthum Oil, 0.5

Formula 3. Anti-acne gel

Alcohol (Ethanol, Silcompa SpA), 10.0% w/w
Sodium Polyacrylate (Covacryl Mv60, Lcm), 3.0
Lonicera Caprifolium Flower Extract (and) Lonicera Japonica Flower Extract (Plantservative WSR, Bregaglio), 0.25
Glycerin (Glycerin, Polichimica), 3.0
Thymus Vulgaris Oil, 0.5
PPG-26-Buteth-26 (and) PEG-40 Hydrogenated Castor Oil (and) Water (aqua) (Solubilisant LRI, LCM), 3.0
Water (aqua), qs to 100.00

Next image >

 
 

Close

It's Free...

Register or Log in to get full access to this content

Registration includes:

  • Access to all premium content
  • One click ingredient sample requests
  • Save articles in the My Library tool

Create an Account or Log In