Assessing the Impact of Hair Damage Types on Color Retention

Jun 1, 2013 | Contact Author | By: Denis Bendejacq, PhD, Solvay
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Title: Assessing the Impact of Hair Damage Types on Color Retention
color protectionx retentionx fadingx heatx bleachx permx shampoox UVx
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Keywords: color protection | retention | fading | heat | bleach | perm | shampoo | UV

Abstract: This article reviews and assesses damage types caused to hair before and after artificial coloration, i.e., by bleaching, perming, heat treatment, UV exposure and shampooing, to compare how they impact color durability individually and combined. Formulation emerges as the key to designing shampoos that efficiently deliver actives to improve color protection against these and other damage types.

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D Bendejacq, Assessing the Impact of Hair Damage Types on Color Retention, Cosmet & Toil 128(6) 414 (2013)

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  • Striking K-pop hair styling and makeup trends are storming Indonesia's youth.
  • After the demand for hair coloring products, straightening and perming products are second in demand, with sizeable marketshare.
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Protecting colored hair is a topic that appeals to consumers almost all over the world since, although artificial colors are supposed to be permanent, they always eventually fade. As a result, according to Mintel’s product database,1 of the nearly 16,000 water-based shampoos launched between January 2007 and June 2012, approximately 3,200 of them mention color or fading in their descriptions. Many of these shampoos focus particularly on the color fade that occurs after coloration, such as by shampooing and exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun. These factors are known to cause color fade, although not to the same extent.

Over the past five years, increasing numbers of consumers dyeing their hair have led to a steady increase in shampoos claiming color protection—and other than just “anti-UV.” In Europe, for instance, “anti-washout” shampoo launches represented 13.5% of the shampoo market in 2007, and increased to 21% in 2011. In North America, the same trend was observed; 22% of shampoos launched in 2007 made “anti-washout” claims, which increased to 32% in 2011. In the meantime, true “anti-UV” offerings remained constant at best in both regions, if not declined. This is with reason: The color protection segment is now far more concerned with shampoos claiming protection against color washout rather than UV.

As a matter of fact, water itself, as will be illustrated, significantly contributes to color fading caused by washout. The use of surfactants, i.e., anionic, amphoteric, neutral, is not without effects as well.2, 3 Thus, formulators might choose different options to create anti-washout shampoos, structured or micellar. For structured shampoos, formulations based on branched anionics like sodium trideceth sulphate (STDES) can be designed to help reduce fading.2 For micellar ones, formulators will favor amphoteric surfactants like amphoacetates, reputedly milder than cocamidopropylbetaine; and when they want a “sulfate-free” version, they will almost always turn to alkylpolyglucosides (APGs).2, 3

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This content is adapted from an article in GCI Magazine. The original version can be found here.

 

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Table 1. Model formulations used in the present article

Table 1.  Model formulations used in the present article

All test shampoos were based on a conventional chassis representative of the hair care segment (see Formula B in Table 1), comprising: 14% w/w active sodium laureth sulfate, 2% w/w active cocamidopropylbetaineg and 1.6% w/w active sodium chloride.

Table 2. Evolution of hair color from original, natural medium brown to final artificial color depending on the order between two damaging treatments, i.e., bleach and perm (in % w/w active ingredient)

Table 2.  Evolution of hair color from original, natural medium brown to final artificial color depending on the order between two damaging treatments, i.e., bleach and perm (in % w/w active ingredient)

Double-bleached hair tresses, colored auburn with the same commercial kit described, were shampooed up to 10 times with the model shampoos based on different silicones (see Table 2).

Figure 1. Relative fading vs. the number of shampoos of tresses previously bleached then permed (left) or vice versa (right), before coloring; shampooing was carried out with Formula B

Figure 1. Relative fading vs. the number of shampoos of tresses previously bleached then permed (left) or vice versa (right), before coloring; shampooing was carried out with Formula B

As Figure 1 shows, when bleaching is carried out before perming and coloring, 50% of the color is lost after five shampoos, in comparison with only 30% when the perm is done first.

Figure 2. Absolute color fading ∆Efading of a) single-bleached or b) double-bleached Caucasian hair tresses colored, then shampooed and/or exposed to UV; shampooing was done with a commercial color protection brand.

Figure 2. Absolute color fading ∆E fading of a) single-bleached or b) double-bleached Caucasian hair tresses colored, then shampooed and/or exposed to UV; shampooing was done with a commercial color protection brand.

However, with dyed double-bleached tresses (see Figure 2, bottom), the impact of UV alone was negligible, with only a slight additive effect over shampooing.

Figure 3. Relative amount ∆Efading/∆Ecolor of artificial auburn color lost after 10 shampoos with Formula B by single-bleached hair tresses, as a function of drying temperature and duration.

Figure 3. Relative amount ∆Efading/∆Ecolor of artificial auburn color lost after 10 shampoos with Formula B by single-bleached hair tresses, as a function of drying temperature and duration.

As expected, longer drying times and higher temperatures increased fading (see Figure 3).

Figure 4. Absolute amount of color lost after 10 wash cycles with water or Formula B in continuous or sequenced approaches, with or without drying

Figure 4. Absolute amount of color lost after 10 wash cycles with water or Formula B in continuous or sequenced approaches, with or without drying

Figure 4 compares the fading of auburn tresses washed either: 10 times in a row without ever drying them, i.e., “continuous” washing; or auburn tresses shampooed and dried at 45°C for 2 hr between shampoos up to 10 times, i.e., “sequenced” washing.

Figure 5. Impact on color retention of formulations based on different silicone size, dosage or chemistry, Formulas C to G, Table 1, as a function of the number of shampoos

Figure 5. Impact on color retention of formulations based on different silicone size, dosage or chemistry, Formulas C to G, Table 1, as a function of the number of shampoos

Figure 5 shows that adding a silicone to a shampoo containing a guar able to flocculate and deposit silicone in an optimal way resulted in improved color protection, which is consistent with published data.

Footnotes (CT1306 Bendejacq)

a Hair was purchased from International Hair Importers and Products.
b Rhodapex ES-2K (INCI: Water (aqua) (and) Sodium Laureth Sulfate) is a product of Solvay.
c Oxidant cream #2, 9% 30 vol., and bleaching compact powder Plastifiz Précision;
d Garnier Permifique;
e Garnier 100% color #562; and
f Elsève Color Vive are products of L’Oréal.
g Mirataine BET-C30 (INCI: Water (aqua) (and) Cocamidopropylbetaine) is a product of Solvay.
h Mirasil DME-2 KCG (INCI: Water (aqua) (and) Dimethicone (and) Laureth-8 (and) Succinoglycan) and
j Mirasil ADM-E (INCI: Water (aqua) (and) Amodimethicone (and) Trideceth-6) are products of Bluestar Silicones.
k The Suntest CPS+ is manufactured by Heraeus Industrietechnik.
m The Venticell from Fisher Bioblock Scientific was used for this study.
n Spectrophotometer CM-2500d from Konika-Minolta Sensing, Inc. was used for this study.

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