Antiaging in a Different Light: Assessing How Chromophores Color Perception

Aug 1, 2010 | Contact Author | By: Philippe Mondon, Nada André, Emmanuel Doridot, Olga Gracioso and Karl Lintner, PhD, Sederma SAS
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Title: Antiaging in a Different Light: Assessing How Chromophores Color Perception
chromophoresx collagenx heterogeneityx darutosidex oridoninx spectrophotometric intracutaneous analysisx
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Keywords: chromophores | collagen | heterogeneity | darutoside | oridonin | spectrophotometric intracutaneous analysis

Abstract: Aging influences cutaneous parameters that give rise to progressive changes in three skin chromophores, altering the visual homogeneity of skin. To address these changes, the authors developed and examined the effects of a complex based on Siegesbeckia orientalis and Rabdosia rubescens using a novel skin imaging technique.

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P Mondon, N André, E Doridot, O Gracioso and K Lintner, PhD, Antiaging in a different light: Assessing how chromophores color perception, Cosm & Toil 125(8) 26-33 (Aug 2010)

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In general, beautiful skin is perceived as being blemish-free, a characteristic often associated with youthful skin. During aging, a progressive decline in functions in the skin gives rise to, among other things, the emergence of visible heterogeneity of the skin including redness, blemishes, blotches, wrinkles and rough spots that are more readily noticeable. Pro-inflammatory messengers induce local redness and greater sensitivity of the blood vessels to environmental or behavioral stress.

Similarly, oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory messengers stimulate pigmentation. Also, the dendricity of melanocytes increases while the phagocyte activity of keratinocytes on melanosomes is augmented. This results in the localized appearance of lentigines and hyperpigmentation.

Chromophores

Chromophores are molecules able to absorb light at a certain wavelength. The two most common cutaneous types are brown and red chromophores, i.e. melanin produced by melanocytes and stored in neighboring keratinocytes and hemoglobin contained in the blood, respectively. In young skin, the distribution of these two types is very homogeneous. Thus, young healthy Caucasian type skin has a fresh pink complexion with no apparent blood vessels. The vascular structure consists of a dense network of superficial, practically invisible microcapillaries that supply the skin with nutrients and oxygen. Regarding pigmentation, young skin exhibits little melanin chromophore visual asperity, and stimulation of melanin genesis by exposure to the sun results in the homogeneous pigmentation of skin.

With age and repeated daily minor stresses, however, the situation tends to change. The skin loses its bloom due to the impairment of the chromophore balance. Locally, certain melanocytes become more productive and lentigines of variable size and shape appear on the skin. In parallel, in certain places—frequently those most exposed to the sun—vascularization becomes visible either in the form of vessels or diffuse red areas of variable intensity.


Lab Practical: Employing the SR Complex

  • The SR active comples is soluble in water. 
  • It is easily incorporated into emulsions between 25°C and 80°C.
  • The material is compatible with most cosmetic ingredients, including ethanol. 
  • The blend is preservative-free.

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Table 1. Change in melanin content

Table 1. Change in melanin content

Change in melanin content of human melanocytes after five days of incubation with SR complex (n = 4)

Figure 1. Elderly skin

Figure 1. Elderly skin

Elderly skin with lentigines and redness on the a) face and b) hand

Figure 2. Darutoside structure

Figure 2. Darutoside structure

Darutoside, extracted and purified from Siegesbeckia orientalis, a plant of Madagascar, is reputed to possess soothing and healing effects. It is a diterpene whose structure is shown here.

Figure 3. Oridonin structure

Figure 3. Oridonin structure

Rabdosia rubescens has been used in traditional Chinese medicine. The herb is endowed with antibacterial and antiinflammatory activity, and from this plant, the authors isolated oridonin in a pure form, whose structure is shown here.

Figure 4. Collagen I immunolabeling

Figure 4. Collagen I immunolabeling

Collagen I immunolabeling of reconstructed skin specimens; a) control, b) aged skin and c) aged skin + 3% SR complex

Figure 5. Inflammation index

Figure 5. Inflammation index

Inflammation index of a) the control; green = model melanosomes; blue = cell nucleus; and b) treatment with 3% SR complex

Figure 6. Results of the HET-CAM test

Figure 6. Results of the HET-CAM test

Results of the HET-CAM test; a) irritant control at T0; and b) T 4.5 min; and c) treatment with SR complex at T0; and d) T 4.5 min

Figure 7. Echographic scan

Figure 7. Echographic scan

Echographic scan of a) the dermis of a subject aged 20 years, and b) the dermis of a subject aged 68 years

Figure 8. Change in dermal collagen

Figure 8. Change in dermal collagen

Change in dermal collagen (echography + image analysis; n = 25); * = p 0.05 versus T0; ** = p < 0.01 versus T0; $ = p < 0.05 versus control; and $$ = p < 0.01 versus control

Figure 9. Collagen distribution visualized by SIA scanner

Figure 9. Collagen distribution visualized by SIA scanner

Although absolute values of change appear to be small, they are, in fact, significant, including when they are compared with the vehicle-only treated sites: The heterogeneity values dropped from 2.51 to 2.46 (p < 0.05), whereas they were unchanged to the third decimal point, 2.475, on placebo sites.

Figure 10. Change in standard deviation vs. theoretical age

Figure 10. Change in standard deviation vs. theoretical age

Correlation between the change in standard deviation and change in theoretical age for collagen homogeneity

Figure 11. Melanin chromophores

Figure 11. Melanin chromophores

Melanin chromophores: a) at T0, and b) after one month of treatment

Figure 12. Hemoglobin chromophores

Figure 12. Hemoglobin chromophores

Hemoglobin chromophores: a) at T0, and b) after one month of treatment

Figure 13. SIA scan

Figure 13. SIA scan

SIA scan of the décolleté a) at T0, and b) at T2 months, showing a reduction in vascularization

Footnotes [Mondon 125(8)]

a Chromocare (INCI: Butylene Glycol (and) Water (aqua) (and) Siegesbeckia Orientalis Extract (and) Rabdosia Rubescens Extract) is a product of Sederma.

b Full Thickness Skin is a product of Phenion.

c The Spectrophotometric Intracutaneous Analysis (SIAscope) device is manufactured by AstronClinica.

d The VISIA System photographic chamber is manufactured by Canfield.

e The Dermascan C echography system is manufactured by Cortex.

Formula 1. Test formulas for in vivo evaluations

Formula 1. Test formulas for in vivo evaluations

Subjects were required to use only the cosmetics supplied throughout the duration of the study.

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