In general, beautiful skin is perceived as being blemish-free, a characteristic often associated with youthful skin. During aging, a progressive decline in functions in the skin gives rise to, among other things, the emergence of visible heterogeneity of the skin including redness, blemishes, blotches, wrinkles and rough spots that are more readily noticeable. Pro-inflammatory messengers induce local redness and greater sensitivity of the blood vessels to environmental or behavioral stress.
Similarly, oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory messengers stimulate pigmentation. Also, the dendricity of melanocytes increases while the phagocyte activity of keratinocytes on melanosomes is augmented. This results in the localized appearance of lentigines and hyperpigmentation.
Chromophores are molecules able to absorb light at a certain wavelength. The two most common cutaneous types are brown and red chromophores, i.e. melanin produced by melanocytes and stored in neighboring keratinocytes and hemoglobin contained in the blood, respectively. In young skin, the distribution of these two types is very homogeneous. Thus, young healthy Caucasian type skin has a fresh pink complexion with no apparent blood vessels. The vascular structure consists of a dense network of superficial, practically invisible microcapillaries that supply the skin with nutrients and oxygen. Regarding pigmentation, young skin exhibits little melanin chromophore visual asperity, and stimulation of melanin genesis by exposure to the sun results in the homogeneous pigmentation of skin.
With age and repeated daily minor stresses, however, the situation tends to change. The skin loses its bloom due to the impairment of the chromophore balance. Locally, certain melanocytes become more productive and lentigines of variable size and shape appear on the skin. In parallel, in certain places—frequently those most exposed to the sun—vascularization becomes visible either in the form of vessels or diffuse red areas of variable intensity.
Lab Practical: Employing the SR Complex
- The SR active comples is soluble in water.
- It is easily incorporated into emulsions between 25°C and 80°C.
- The material is compatible with most cosmetic ingredients, including ethanol.
- The blend is preservative-free.