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New in In vitro (page 13 of 15)
Apr 26, 2006 | 11:17 AM CDT
By: M. Pissavini and L. Ferrero, V. Alard, U. Hein…
A ring test at six European test centers showed that SPF evaluations with good reproducibility and comparability could be obtained by an in vitro protocol measuring either transmittance or erythema-effective irradiance of product samples applied on PMMA plates.
Apr 17, 2006 | 08:29 AM CDT
By: Bruce A. Buchholz and Howard I. Maibach
Quantification of percutaneous penetration and metabolism of skin care ingredients has seemed daunting; however, new technology provides a ready solution for the problematic arena. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is a new analytical method that measures a biological response better than the existing technique.
Jan 02, 2006 | 01:04 PM CST
A Dermatological View: Using Photochemiluminescence to Quantify the Antioxidative Capacity of Topicals
By: H Zhai, MD, and HI Maibach, MD, University of …
Exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR), air pollutants, chemical oxidants and aerobic microorganisms may damage the skin. In particular, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are considered a likely contributor to skin aging, cancer and certain skin disorders.
Dec 23, 2005 | 05:31 PM CST
By: Hongbo Zhai, MD, and Howard I. Maibach, MD, Un…
Pruritus or itching is an unpleasant sensation that provokes a desire to scratch. Many factors such as chemical, mechanical, thermal and electrical stimuli can elicit the itch sensation. Mediators of itch presumably directly act on nerve fibers or lead to a nerve stimulation cascade whose final common pathway is interpreted in the central nervous system as itching. Putative receptors for itching are C-fibers with exceptionally low conduction velocities and insensitivity to mechanical stimuli. Histamine, the proto-typical chemical mediator of itch, which is released during mast cell degranulation and mediates its effects in the skin via H1 receptor, is the best-known experimental pruritogen.
Dec 23, 2005 | 02:59 PM CST
By: Ken Klein
There is probably no personal care category that is more competitive than shampoos. With this in mind, formulators of shampoos are asked by marketing to develop products to both appeal to consumers and perform (whatever “perform” means).
Dec 23, 2005 | 02:36 PM CST
By: O.D.H. Santos, F. Sacai, M. Ferrari and P.A. R…
Using a ternary phase diagram, the authors developed systems based on nonionic surfactants, light paraffin oil, water, and (optionally) urea. Systems in which lamellar liquid crystals formed and in which urea was an ingredient showed higher occlusive power and lower TEWL in in vitro tests.
Nov 01, 2005 | 03:10 PM CST
By: Myeong Jun Choi, Ph.D., and Howard I. Maibach,…
Stress induces changes in the ceramide content of the skin, and may lead to compromised barrier function or skin diseases. Skin has ways of responding to these stresses, as we review here in the case of skin stressed by tape stripping, organic solvents, overcrowding, and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation.
Nov 01, 2005 | 02:52 PM CST
By: Y. K. Kamath, TRI
Torsional properties are described by the author as a method to distinguish between the surface and the bulk effects of actives in hair formulations.
Jan 07, 2004 | 04:11 PM CST
By: Berislav Markovic, Donna Laura and Mark Rerek,…
A new laboratory in vitro method for the measurement of sunscreen water resistance uses spectrophotometric analysis of a model skin substitute before and after 80-minute immersion. It gives good correlation with the FDA’s 80-minute immersion SPF results (very water resistant). The method is especially good for screening new formulations or water-resistant technologies.
May 06, 2003 | 02:00 AM CDT
By: J. Menoutis and A. I. Parisi, Quantex Laborato…
Each batch of triclosan should be analyzed for trace amounts of 2 3 7 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and 2 3 7 8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran, which can form as unwanted manufacturing by-products, as shown in triclosan from six commercial Asian sources.