Build a solid foundation in science, formulation and product development—find out more!
Most Popular in:
In Vitro Model for Decontamination of Human Skin
By: Hongbo Zhai, MD, University of California; and Howard I. Maibach, MD, University of California School of Medicine
Posted: April 1, 2009, from the April 2009 issue of Cosmetics & Toiletries.
page 5 of 5
Based on the solubility of variables such as: contaminant and decontamination solutions, pH, the volume of decontamination, time of removal ratios, and physical enhancements (e.g., stripping, rubbing, adhesives; defining binding properties); robust decontamination agents/systems may be developable. For instance, a recent controlled experiment showed that water rinsing followed by topical calcium provided favorable results for hydrofluoric acid skin decontamination.11 Note, however, details provided by Hall et al.12 that may have significantly influenced the results; for example, the immediate use of a skin decontamination agent as a critical factor of efficacy following hydrofluoric acid exposure. In addition, adoption of splashing or acute burning models may also dramatically result in diametrically opposite outcomes with regard to decontamination agent potency. Wester et al.13 summarize the literature on skin decontamination, and Moody and Maibach14 the “wash-in” effect, or water-enhancing penetration.
The present model could be used as a rapid screening procedure for the development of effective decontamination agents. Taken together, the authors do not wish to overgeneralize these results. Yet, the in vitro human skin model may—when validated with other chemicals and subsequent in vivo verification2, 3—provide more rapid enhancement of practical knowledge in this complex field.
Reproduction of all or part of this article strictly is prohibited.
Send e-mail to: CT_author@allured.com.
1. RT Tregear, ed, Physical functions of skin, London: Academic Press (1966)
2. RC Wester, J Melendres and HI Maibach, In vivo percutaneous absorption and skin decontamination of alachlor in rhesus monkey, J Toxicol Environ Health 36 1–12 (1992)
3. RC Wester, X Hui, T Landry and HI Maibach, In vivo skin decontamination of methylene bisphenyl isocyanate (MDI): Soap and water ineffective compared to polypropylene glycol, polyglycol-based cleanser, and corn oil, Toxicol Sci 48 1–4 (1999)
4. P Kintz, A Tracqui and P Mangin, Accidental death caused by the absorption of 2,4-dichlorophenol through the skin, Arch Toxicol 66 298–299 (1992)
5. MD Pratt et al, North American Contact Dermatitis Group patch-test results, 2001–2002 study period, Dermatitis 15 176–183 (2004)
6. LN Hurst, DH Brown and KA Murray, Prolonged life and improved quality for stored skin grafts, Pla Reconstr Surg 73 105–109 (1984)
7. RL Bronaugh, RF Stewart and JE Storm, Extent of cutaneous metabolism during percutaneous absorption of xenobiotics, Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 99 534–543 (1989)
8. RC Wester, J Christoffel, T Hartway, N Poblete and HI Maibach, Cadaver human skin viability for in vitro percutaneous absorption: storage and detrimental effects of heat-separation and freezing, Pharm Res 15 82–84 (1998)
9. X Hui, RC Wester, PS Magee and HI Maibach, Partitioning of chemicals from water into powdered human stratum corneum (Callus): A model study, In Vitro Toxicology 8 150–167 (1995)
10. RC Wester et al, Polymers effect on estradiol partition coefficient between powdered human stratum corneum and water, J Pharm Sci 91 2642–2645 (2002)
11. J Hojer, M Personne, P Hulten, U Ludwigs, Topical treatments for hydrofluoric acid burns: A blind controlled experimental study, J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 40 861–866 (2002)
12. AH Hall, J Blomet and L Mathieu, Topical treatments for hydrofluoric acid burns: A blind controlled experimental study (letter), J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 41 1031–1032 (2003)
13. RC Wester and HI Maibach, Pesticide percutaneous absorption and decontamination, in Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology, Principles, 2nd edn, RI Krieger, ed, San Diego: Academic Press (2001) pp 905–912
14. RP Moody and HI Maibach, Skin decontamination: importance of the wash-in effect, Food Chem Toxicol 44 1783–1788 (2006)