Image Processing and Analysis to Evaluate the Effects of Porous Polyamide Microspheres in Cosmetics

Sep 1, 2013 | Contact Author | By: Helena Cheminet, PhD, Arkema; Pierre Seroul, Newtone Technologies; and Vincenzo Nobile, Farcoderm
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Title: Image Processing and Analysis to Evaluate the Effects of Porous Polyamide Microspheres in Cosmetics
imagingx claim substantiationx nylon microspheresx
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Keywords: imaging | claim substantiation | nylon microspheres

Abstract: Described here is an image processing system that compensates for changes in illumination and volunteer position, and two algorithms to quantify skin texture and wrinkles. These methods evaluate skin parameters from a single image without contacting skin. Their abilities are demonstrated here in evaluations of the benefits of porous polyamide ultra-fine powders on skin texture and gloss.

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H Cheminet, P Seroul and V Nobile, Image Processing and Analysis to Evaluate the Effects of Porous Polyamide Microspheres in Cosmetics, Cosm & Toil 128(9) 668 (2013)

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The clinical evaluation of cosmetic or dermatological products is now mandatory to provide proof of an active ingredient’s or a formulation’s efficacy, and to successfully penetrate the personal care market. Thanks to the latest research in medical and industrial imaging, cosmetic companies are able to accurately quantify the features of skin’s appearance as correlated to visual perception. A great number of devices to perform skin measurements are available. Some are specialized in measuring physical and chemical skin properties; others focus on describing skin structure, its morphology and/or visual appearance. Image analysis and processing are part of the second category, as they are designed to correlate measurements with the visual interpretation of experts, dermatologists or cosmetic users.

Quantifying changes in skin’s color, evaluating its brightness and texture, measuring dark spots, etc., can all be performed using skin imaging, which provides substantial benefits, compared with traditional techniques. Unlike colorimeters or gloss meters, image analysis is carried out without contacting skin and therefore does not cause devascularization, which can influence skin color. Through image processing, skin brightness can be measured in a reproducible way that is independent of the skin’s topology and does not alter the measurement area. The notion of spatiality also enables precise measurements of the color of blotches, hair and lesions while ignoring the surrounding skin.

Medical imaging can be transposed to dermo-cosmetic and cosmetic fields and used at each stage of product evaluation—from screening an active ingredient in vitro, to its use in a finished product tested on volunteers. Medical imaging provides a reproducible standard among all images, to extract the relevant information and accurately quantify claims. This paper will focus on a skin image analysis technique that can be used to prove specific claims by highlighting the performance of porous polyamide microspheres in personal care formulations.

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This content is adapted from an article in GCI Magazine. The original version can be found here.

 

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Figure 1. SEM pictures of a) nylon particles (10 µm), and b) their cross-section view

Figure 1. SEM pictures of a) nylon particles (10 µm), and b) their cross-section view

The porous particles studied here are obtained through direct synthesis and present a specific morphology with a spherical shape, as shown in Figure 1a.

Figure 2. Stereotactic device and color chart developed for skin color registration

Figure 2. Stereotactic device and color chart developed for skin color registration

In this work, advanced mathematical models were used to decrease lighting variations by about 90%, thanks to a color chart specifically designed for the registration of skin colors (see Figure 2).

Figure 3. Difference maps between T0 and Ti, and deformation field applied

Figure 3. Difference maps between T0 and Ti, and deformation field applied

Visual validations were performed on difference maps obtained by subtracting Ti from T0 (see Figure 3).

Figure 4. Gloss map

Figure 4. Gloss map

Gloss measurements were taken by extracting high intensity level pixels and subtracting their average value from the skin tone (see Figure 4).

Figure 5. Evolution of gloss

Figure 5. Evolution of gloss

Just after active powder application, volunteer’s skin was less shiny compared with the placebo powder (see Figure 5).

Figure 6. Evolution of sebum content of skin volunteers versus T0

Figure 6. Evolution of sebum content of skin volunteers versus T0

Figure 6 shows the evolution of sebum content on the skin for both the active and placebo products.

Figure 7. Nylon-12 structure

Figure 7. Nylon-12 structure

Nylon-12 polymers have long fatty chains, which are highly compatible with the skin surface (see Figure 7).

Figure 8. Evolution of skin texture

Figure 8. Evolution of skin texture

Another feature studied by this image analysis technique was skin texture (see Figure 8), which was computed by image analysis using algorithms developed by Haralick.

Figure 9. Soft focus effects on two subjects a) before applying the antiwrinkle emulsion, and b) 20 min after applying the emulsion

Figure 9. Soft focus effects on two subjects a) before applying the antiwrinkle emulsion, and b) 20 min after applying the emulsion

While photographs of the volunteers’ wrinkles (see Figure 9) can show soft focus benefits, they cannot quantity this improvement.

Figure 10. Three-dimensional representation of crow’s feet wrinkles

Figure 10. Three-dimensional representation of crow’s feet wrinkles

First, in vivo fringe projection was used to create a 3D representation of the crow’s feet wrinkles, as shown in Figure 10.

Figure 11. a) Image segmentation by fiber tracking and b) mapping the depth of crow’s feet

Figure 11. a) Image segmentation by fiber tracking and b) mapping the depth of crow’s feet

These techniques, unlike texture analysis, enable the image segmentation and thresholding of pictures taken by analyzing the vesselness of the wrinkles (see Figure 11).

Figure 12. Crow’s feet evolution after using the anti-wrinkle emulsion; 20 min and 2 hr

Figure 12. Crow’s feet evolution after using the anti-wrinkle emulsion; 20 min and 2 hr

As a result, an immediate and significant anti-wrinkle effect was shown on the crow’s feet (see Figures 9a-b and 12).

Footnotes (CT1309 Cheminet)

a Orgasol 2002 EXD NAT COS (INCI: Nylon-12), and
b Orgasol 4000 EXD NAT COS CARESSE (INCI: Nylon-6/12) are products of Arkema, www.arkema-inc.com.
c The Sebumeter SM 815 is a device of Courage and Khazaka Electronic GmbH, www.courage-khazaka.com.
d The NIKON D300 professional reflex digital camera equipped with an AF-S Micro NIKKOR 60 mm f/2.8G ED, and
e the Kit R1C1 system are made by Nikon Inc., www.nikon.com.
f The stereotactic face device used is manufactured by Canfield Scientific, Inc., www.canfieldsci.com.
g The Newtone Color Chart was developed by Newtone Technologies, www.newtone-tech.fr.

Formula 1. Tested pressed facial powder

Formula 1. Tested pressed facial powder

In a pressed facial powder (see Formula 1), 5% w/w nylon-12 active powder was incorporated.

Formula 2. Tested o/w skin care emulsion

Formula 2. Tested o/w skin care emulsion

In an o/w anti-wrinkle skin care emulsion (see Formula 2), 3.5% w/w nylon-6/12 was used.

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