Fischer-Tropsch vs. Mineral Products for Moisturization

Jun 1, 2013 | Contact Author | By: Madelyn Bekker, PhD; Nicolaas Rossouw Louw; and Glenda Vanessa Webber, PhD, Sasol Wax
Your message has been sent.
(click to close)
Contact the Author
Save
This item has been saved to your library.
View My Library
(click to close)
Save to My Library
Title: Fischer-Tropsch vs. Mineral Products for Moisturization
Fischer-Tropsch waxx petroleum jellyx creamx moisturizing efficacyx
  • Article
  • Media
  • Keywords/Abstract
  • Related Material

Keywords: Fischer-Tropsch wax | petroleum jelly | cream | moisturizing efficacy

Abstract: Differing amounts of Fischer-Tropsch (FT) wax were used in petroleum jelly and final cosmetic emulsions to evaluate moisturizing effects in skin. FT wax was shown to perform as well or better than traditional mineral-derived products.

View citation for this article

M Bekker, NR Louw and GV Webber, Fischer-Tropsch vs. Mineral Products for Moisturization, Cosmet & Toil 128(6) 422 (2013)

Excerpt Only This is a shortened version or summary of the article you requested. To view the complete article, please log in or create an account. Registration is Free!

In previous work,1 the authors explored the benefits of Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthetic waxes for petroleum jelly production. Petroleum jelly is widely used in personal care and is mainly prepared from blends of paraffin wax, microcrystalline wax and mineral oil. Paraffin wax is obtained by purifying slack waxes, but due to changing worldwide demand, their availability is expected to decrease. This presented the need to identify alternative wax sources to produce petroleum jelly, and the authors found that FT waxes provide advantages including improved sustainability and availability, as well as low aromatic and sulfur-based components.

As an extension of their previous work, here the authors assess the performance of cream and petroleum jelly formulas containing different amounts of FT wax, to determine whether its moisturizing effects compare with traditional mineral-derived products. From this, additional future research will be carried out.

Skin and Moisturization

To understand moisturization, it is first important to consider some biology. Biological skin aging occurs beginning at the age of 25 in a natural physiological process,2 although factors such as exposure to sunlight (UV), cold and air pollution may accelerate this process. In addition, the modern diet, which often contains high levels of refined foods, stress, sleep deprivation and lack of exercise contribute to premature skin aging.3 Skin is one of the most complex human organs. With a total area of approximately 2 m2, it is the largest organ of the human body and has roughly 4 million sensory receptors.4

Excerpt Only This is a shortened version or summary of the article you requested. To view the complete article, please log in or create an account. Registration is Free!

 

Close

Table 1. Petroleum jellies tested

Table 1. Petroleum jellies tested

The test products included petroleum jellies and creams, as shown in Tables 1 and 2, respectively.

Table 2. Cream formulations tested

Table 2. Cream formulations tested

The test products included petroleum jellies and creams, as shown in Tables 1 and 2, respectively.

Figure 1. Petroleum jelly mean difference of corneometer readings for the products and untreated sites at 1 hr, 48 hr and 96 hr

Figure 1. Petroleum jelly mean difference of corneometer readings for the products and untreated sites at 1 hr, 48 hr and 96 hr

The average corneometer values at 1 hr, 48 hr and 96 hr of the 25 test subjects are shown in Figure 1 for petroleum jellies and Figure 2 for creams.

Figure 2. Cream mean difference of corneometer readings for the products and untreated sites at 1 hr, 48 hr and 96 hr

Figure 2. Cream mean difference of corneometer readings for the products and untreated sites at 1 hr, 48 hr and 96 hr.

The average corneometer values at 1 hr, 48 hr and 96 hr of the 25 test subjects are shown in Figure 1 for petroleum jellies and Figure 2 for creams.

Figure 3. Mean difference of visual assessments for jelly products and untreated sites at 1 hr, 48 hr and 96 hr

Figure 3. Mean difference of visual assessments for jelly products and untreated sites at 1 hr, 48 hr and 96 hr

Expert grader assessments for the petroleum jelly and cream samples are shown in Figures 3 and 4.

Figure 4. Mean difference of visual assessments for cream products and untreated sites at 1 hr, 48 hr and 96 hr

Figure 4. Mean difference of visual assessments for cream products and untreated sites at 1 hr, 48 hr and 96 hr

Expert grader assessments for the petroleum jelly and cream samples are shown in Figures 3 and 4.

Figure 5. Mean difference of vapometer readings for petroleum jelly products and untreated sites at 1 hr, 48 hr and 96 hr

Figure 5. Mean difference of vapometer readings for petroleum jelly products and untreated sites at 1 hr, 48 hr and 96 hr

Vapometer results are summarized in Figures 5 and 6 for petroleum jellies and creams, respectively.

Figure 6. Mean difference of vapometer readings for cream products and untreated sites at 1 hr, 48 hr and 96 hr

Figure 6. Mean difference of vapometer readings for cream products and untreated sites at 1 hr, 48 hr and 96 hr

Vapometer results are summarized in Figures 5 and 6 for petroleum jellies and creams, respectively.

Footnotes (CT1306 Bekker)

a Corneometer probe CM825 attached to an MPA 5 unit from Courage and Khazaka was used for this study.
b The Delfin Vapometer SWL4252 was used for this study.
c Sasolwax (INCI: Synthetic Wax (and) Synthetic Petrolatum (and) C14-20 Alkane) from Sasol was used for this study.

Formula 1. Cream formulation tested

Formula 1. Cream formulation tested

Creams C, D, F and G in Table 2 were formulated (see Formula 1) based on the mineral-derived petroleum jelly products shown in Table 1.

Next image >

 
 

Close

It's Free...

Register or Log in to get full access to this content

Registration includes:

  • Access to all premium content
  • One click ingredient sample requests
  • Save articles in the My Library tool

Create an Account or Log In