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Literature Review—Terahertz Repair, Notch Signaling and Hydrangea
By: Rachel Grabenhofer, Cosmetics & Toiletries
Posted: May 2, 2013, from the May 2013 issue of Cosmetics & Toiletries.
page 3 of 3This article discusses how notch signaling is active during the development, turnover and regeneration of epithelial sheets, and how it may be used to target specific genes. For example, hair cells lost from these sheets due to lesion were spontaneously generated by down-regulating the Hes5 gene using siRNA after a severe lesion, which trans-differentiated supporting cells and led to an increased production of new hair cells—significantly larger than the control treatment. The data suggests the notch signaling pathway is a potentially useful target for specific gene expression inhibition.
Drivers of Aging and Therapeutic Opportunities
CB Newgard et al., University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center; and NE Sharpless, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine; Mar 1, 2013; J Clin Invest
This article describes mechanisms of aging, their relationship to human disease and approaches to regulate them. Specifically discussed are telomere dysfunction in senescence, sirtuin regulation of metabolism, the mechanistic target of the rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway, and the use of mTOR inhibitors to increase longevity. The decline of the immune system with age is considered, and age associated changes to pancreatic islet β-cells is specified as contributing to diabetes. According to the authors, an improved understanding of these molecular and genetic pathways underlying aging could make it possible to therapeutically target the aging process.
Chinese Hydrangea and the Immune System
M Whitman et al., Havard School of Dental Medicine; Feb 12, 2013; Nature Chemical Biology
According to Harvard Science, Chinese herbalists have traditionally treated malaria using a hydrangea root extract commonly known as chang shan. Recent studies suggest that halofuginone (HF), a compound derived from the bioactive ingredient of this extract, could be used to treat autoimmune disorders and reduce scar formation, among other benefits. HF has been shown to trigger a stress-response pathway that blocks the development of the harmful class of Th17 cells immune, which have been implicated in many autoimmune disorders.
Plant-derived Ingredients Help the Skin Defend Itself Against Inflammation, Irritation and Other Aggressors
Cosmetically Active Ingredients: Recent Advances, a dynamic collection of 43 Cosmetics & Toiletries articles describes or reviews research of cosmetic ingredients with physiological or biophysical activity on skin and hair. A chapter is dedicated to sensitive skin and irritation/inflammation. Learn concepts involving many different mechanisms, from inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis, to interesting antioxidant strategies, from DNA repair to reduction of histamine release and others.
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