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H Karasuyama and M Egawa, Tokyo Medical and Dental University; Feb 22, 2013 (online); Immunity
This paper discusses the discovery of a mechanism by which pro-inflammatory cells are converted to anti-inflammatory cells, leading to reduced allergic skin inflammation. According to the abstract, inflammatory monocytes, the primary leukocytes recruited to skin lesions, express a chemokine receptor CCR2 in order to migrate into tissues such as the skin. Therefore, it was expected that CCR2-deficient mice would show reduced inflammation in the skin. However, increased inflammation was observed instead. When CCR2-expressing monocytes were re-introduced, inflammation decreased, indicating the inflammatory monocytes exerted an anti-inflammatory effect.
Previous studies showed that inflammatory monocytes differentiate into type 2 macrophages under the influence of a cytokine (interleukin-4) via one of two modes: differentiation from blood-circulating, resident monocytes; or differentiation from tissue-resident macrophages. This study identified a third mode: differentiation from blood-circulating inflammatory monocytes. Further elucidation of these mechanisms could promote the development of novel strategies to treat allergic inflammation.
LV Titova, AK Ayesheshim and FA Hegmann, University of Alberta; and A Golubov, D Fogen, R Rodriguez-Juarez and O Kovalchuk, University of Lethbridge; Mar 14, 2013; Biomedical Optics Express
Cosmetically Active Ingredients: Recent Advances, a dynamic collection of 43 Cosmetics & Toiletries articles describes or reviews research of cosmetic ingredients with physiological or biophysical activity on skin and hair. A chapter is dedicated to sensitive skin and irritation/inflammation. Learn concepts involving many different mechanisms, from inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis, to interesting antioxidant strategies, from DNA repair to reduction of histamine release and others.
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