Herbal Extracts and Sebum Control and Other Topics

Oct 4, 2004 | Contact Author | By: Charles Fox, Independent Consultant
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Title: Herbal Extracts and Sebum Control and Other Topics
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Charles Fox is an independent consultant to the cosmetic and toiletry industry. He was previously Director of Product Development for the Personal Products Division of Warner-Lambert Company. Mr. Fox is a past recipient of the Cosmetic Industry Buyers and Suppliers Award and the Society of Cosmetic Chemists Medal Award; he has served as President of the SCC.

 

Skin and Skin Care

Self-warming cosmetic cleansing wipes: Beiersdorf, in a recent patent, describes self-warming cosmetic cleansing wipes impregnated with polyalcohols.2 The invention concerns cosmetics wipes that form heat upon contacting water and that contain at least 40% polyalcohols, less than 3% water and may also contain other cosmetic substances. Tissues and non-woven fabrics are impregnated with the mixture. Optionally further cosmetic active ingredients, adjuvants and additives can be added. The wipes are used for skin and facial skin cleansing and as toilette tissues. An example of an impregnating solution is shown in Formula 1.

Formula 1. Warming tissue cleanser impregnating solution2 

PEG-400                                                                                            40.00%
Sodium cocoyl glutamate                                                                     10.00
Sodium lauroyl sarcosinate                                                                  10.00
PEG-sorbitan trioleate                                                                          5.00
Glycerin                                                                                              10.00
Butylene glycol                                                                                   25.00
Fragrance (parfum                                                                      qs

Transparent cleansing cosmetics: Sakamoto Yakuhin Kogyo Co. discloses transparent cleansing cosmetics containing polyglycerin fatty acid esters.3 The cosmetics contain (A) polyglycerin (and) C8-18 branched fatty acid esters, (B) polyglycerin (and) C8-18 linear fatty acid esters and (C) up to 2% water. The cosmetics show good rinse-off and stability at low and high temperatures. A cleansing cosmetic was prepared containing 3% hexaglyceryl monoisostearate, 14% decaglyceryl monolaurate, 82.3% mineral oil, and 0.7 % water.

Lignans for preventing or treating the signs of aging: L'Oréal discloses the use of lignans for preventing or treating the signs of aging.4 The invention relates to the cosmetic use of at least one lignan of given formula, or of a plant extract containing it (such as an extract of flax seeds), in a composition for topical application to the skin. The formula contains a medium for preventing or treating the loss of firmness, elasticity and/or tonicity of the skin and/or the formation of wrinkles and fine lines. The invention also relates to a topical cosmetic composition containing these lignans in combination with other anti-aging active agents. Lastly, the invention describes the topical application of a composition containing at least one such lignan in a cosmetically acceptable medium as a cosmetic process for treating dry skin.

Cosmetics containing acylglucosamines: Lion Corporation in a recent patent describes cosmetics containing acylglucosamines.5 Disclosed is a preparation containing at least one acylglucosamine derivative to improve the skin conditions, such as wrinkles, dryness, roughness, dullness and acne. The preparation may further contain polysiloxanes. An example is shown in Formula 2.

Formula 2. Skin conditioning lotion5
N-trans-retinoyl-d-glucosamine  2.000% 

N-(9-cis)-retinoyl-d-glucosamine

0.010

N-(13-cis)-retinoyl-d-glucosamine

0.009

N-lauroyl-d-glucosamine

1.000
N-isostearoyl-d-glucosamine 1.000
Decaglyceryl monolaurate 0.200
Diglyceryl monoisostearate 0.100
Polyoxyethylene oleyl ether 0.800
Fermented rice extract 0.200
Rose water 0.100
Dipotassium glycyrrhizinate 0.200
Glycerin 7.000
Acrylic acid-alkyl methacrylate copolymer 0.050 

Methylparaben

0.300
Propylparaben 0.100
Triisopropanolamine 0.050 
2-Hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenonesulfonate 0.100
Ethyl alcohol                                                                                      12.000 
Perfumes                                                                                           qs
Water (aqua)                                                                                qs 100.00

Curcuminoid-containing preparations: Beiersdorf discloses curcuminoid-containing cosmetic and dermatological preparations.6 The invention concerns curcuminoids, especially curcumin and tetrahydrocurcumin, and cyclodextrins. An example is shown in Formula 3.

Formula 3. Curcuminoid containing cosmetic6
Glyceryl stearate citrate 2.00% 
Myristyl myristate 1.00
Stearyl alcohol 2.00
Cetyl alcohol 1.00
Hydrogenated coco glycerides 2.00
Butylene glycol dicaprylate/dicaprate 1.00
Ethylhexyl coco fatty acid ester 3.00
Petrolatum 2.00
Cyclomethicone 4.00
Dicaprylyl ether 1.00
Ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate 3.00
Bis-ethylhexyloxyphenol methoxyphenyl triazine 1.00
Tetrahydrocurcumin 0.10
Sodium ascorbyl palmitate 0.05
Gamma-cyclodextrin 3.00
Iminodisuccinate sodium salt 0.20
Phenoxyethanol 0.30
Methylparaben 0.30
Propylparaben 0.30
Diazolidinyl urea 0.25
Xanthan gum 0.10
Carbomer 0.05
Glycerin

10.00

Butylene glycol 2.00
Colors 0.05
Fragrance (parfum) qs
Water (aqua) qs 100.00

9-Octadecenedioic acid in preparations: Another patent assigned to Beiersdorf describes the use of 9-octadecenedioic acid in cosmetic and dermatological preparations.7 The invention concerns skin care that contains 9-octadecenedioic acid as well as cyclodextrins. An example is shown in Formula 4.

Formula 4. Cosmetics containing 9-octadecenedioic acid7
Glyceryl stearate citrate 2.00%
Myristyl myristate 1.00
Stearyl alcohol 2.00
Cetyl alcohol 1.00
Hydrogenated coco glycerides 2.00
Butylene glycol dicaprylate/dicaprate 1.00
Ethylhexyl coco fatty acid ester 3.00
Petrolatum 2.00
Cyclomethicone 4.00
Dicaprylyl ether 1.00
Ethylhexyl methoxy cinnamate 3.00
Bis-ethylhexyloxyphenol methoxyphenyl triazine 1.00
9-Octadecenedioic acid 0.50
Sodium ascorbyl palmitate  0.05
Gamma-cyclodextrin 3.00
Iminodisuccinate sodium salt 0.20
Phenoxyethanol 0.30
Methylparaben 0.30
Propylparaben   0.30
Diazolidinyl urea 0.25
Xanthan gum 0.10
Carbomer 0.05
Glycerin 10.00
Butylene glycol 2.00
Colors 0.05
Perfume qs
Water (aqua)  qs 100.00

Retinoid-containing preparations: BASF discloses retinoid-containing preparations with a water-soluble and an oil-soluble antioxidant.8 The invention concerns retinoid-containing cosmetic, drug or feed products that include a water-soluble and an oil-soluble antioxidant; salts of l-ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol are used. Cosmetic preparations are packaged in oxygen-impermeable containers, preferably coated aluminum, in a protecting gas atmosphere. An example is shown in Formula 5.

Formula 5. Retinoid containing skin lotion8
Ceteareth-6 (and) stearyl alcohol

2.50%

Ceteareth-25 2.50
Hydrogenated coco-glyceride 1.50
PEG-40 dodecyl glycol copolymer 3.00
Dimethicone 3.00
Phenethyl dimethicone 2.00
Cyclomethicone 1.00
Cetearyl octanoate 5.00
Avocado oil 1.00
Almond oil  2.00
Wheat germ oil 0.80
Panthenol 1.00
Phytantriol 0.30
Vitamin E acetate 0.30
Propylene glycol 5.00
Perfume qs
Preservative qs
Ascorbic acid 0.20
Caprylic/capric triglyceride (and) retinol (Retinol 15D, BASF) 0.20
Tocopherol 0.10
Water (aqua)

qs 100.00

Herbal extracts and sebum control: Uchiumi et al. review the activity of herbal extracts on the control of sebum secretion.9 Among the herbal extracts tested, a polyol-soluble licorice extract derived from Glycyrrhiza inflata showed the most potent testosterone 5-alpha-reductase inhibition, androgen receptor binding inhibition, and antimicrobial activities, which are closely related to sebum secretion.
In addition to the findings on polyol-soluble licorice extract, clove extract and peppermint extract showed testosterone 5-alpha-reductase inhibition. Arnica extract and rose fruit extract showed androgen receptor binding inhibition, Alpinia speciosa root extract and scutellaria root extract were estrogen receptor agonists, and sophora root extract showed antimicrobial activity.

Sunscreen Foaming sunscreen compositions: Beiersdorf describes foaming sunscreen compositions containing a particulate organic sunscreen and emulsifier.10 The invention concerns a foaming composition that contains a particulate organic sunscreen and an emulsifier in a container with a pump; the foam is produced by forcing the emulsion with a high velocity through a screen or mesh. Benzotriazole derivative, especially 2,2'-Methylen-bis(6-2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl) phenol, are used as sunscreens. The preferred emulsifier is a cetearyl polyglucoside. An example is shown in Formula 6.

Formula 6. Foaming sunscreen10
Glyceryl stearate 0.50%
Glyceryl stearate citrate 2.00
PEG-40 stearate 0.50
Cetearyl polyglucoside (Tego Care CG 90, Goldschmidt) 0.50
Cetyl alcohol 2.50
Bis-Ethylhexyloxyphenol methoxyphenyl triazine 3.00
Ethylhexyl triazone 2.00

2,2'-Methylene-bis(6-2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenol

2.00
Titanium dioxide 1.00
Butylene glycol dicaprylate/dicaprate 5.00
Cyclomethicone 2.00
PVP hexadecene copolymer 0.50
Glycerin 3.00
Xanthan gum 0.15
Vitamin E acetate 0.50
Alpha-glucosylrutin 0.25
Methylparaben 0.15
Phenoxyethanol 1.00
Fragrance (parfum) 0.20

Water (aqua)

qs 100.00

Percutaneous Absorption
Formulation and the topical delivery of alpha-tocopherol:
Rangarajan et al. report on the effect of formulation on the topical delivery of alpha-tocopherol.11 The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of concentration and delivery system on skin permeation of alpha-tocopherol (alpha-T). Also, the addition of sunscreens and oleic acid on alpha-T permeation was studied using an in vitro micro-Yucatan pig skin model. Various delivery systems of alpha-T (1%) were formulated, which included simple solutions, gels, emulsions, and microemulsions. The experimental design chosen for this study was a statistical randomized complete block design. The results showed that alpha-T delivery was proportional to its concentration. The hydro-alcoholic gel delivered significantly higher amounts of alpha-T into the receptor than the other gels used. A microemulsion containing isopropyl myristate emerged as the best delivery system for alpha-T among all the systems studied.
Pig skin is a suitable in vitro model for studying the permeation of alpha-T and possibly other antioxidants, though in vivo experiments in humans are required to further corroborate the data.

Antiperspirants/Deodorants
Visible capsules in clear formulations:
The Gillette Company in a recent patent discloses clear personal care compositions containing visible capsules.12 The composition of a clear antiperspirant gel composition is shown in Formula 7.

Formula 7. Clear antiperspirant gel with colored particles12 
Aluminum zirconium tetrachlorohydrex Gly 29.00%
Calcium chloride 1.63
Ethyl alcohol 10.92
Propylene glycol 2.98
Cyclopentasiloxane (and) PEG/PPG-18/18 dimethicone 9.52
Dimethicone 1.74
Dimethicone (and) trisiloxane 6.09
Colored capsules 0.35
Fragrance (parfum) 0.64
Water (aqua)

qs 100.00

Interesting Vehicles
Urea and fat-soluble vitamins in liquid cosmetics: Kanebo Ltd. describes storage-stable transparent liquid cosmetics containing urea and fat-soluble vitamins.13 The transparent liquid cosmetics contain (A) urea, (B) fat-soluble vitamins selected from vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin K, and/or their derivatives, (C) lactic acid, phosphoric acid, citric acid, edetic acid, and/or their salts, and (D) two or less kinds of nonionic surfactants having HLB >10. An example of a cosmetic lotion is shown in Formula 8.

Formula 8. Storage-stable transparent liquid cosmetic13 
Urea  5.00%
Lactic acid 3.60
Sodium lactate 2.40
Polyethylene glycol 1.00
Ethyl alcohol 30.00
Polysorbate 20 1.00
Polysorbate 80 1.00
dl-Alpha-tocopherol acetate 0.10
Fragrance (parfum) 0.03
Water (aqua) 

qs 100.00

This product showed good transparency after 6-months storage at 0oC, and had a pH 5.2 and 5.7 before and after 6-months storage at 40oC. No ammonia odor was detected (through breakdown of urea) after 6-months storage at 40oC.

Cosmetic preparations composed of two phases without emulsifiers: Beiersdorf discloses cosmetic preparations composed of two phases without emulsifiers.14 The invention concerns cosmetic preparations (e.g., skin care products) that are composed of two phases without emulsifiers; phase separation is regulated via the specific gravity difference of the two phases; the specific gravity of the phases is influenced through the ingredients. The aqueous phase contains at least 50 wt/wt% (relative to the total preparation weight) alcohol and 0.01-60 wt/wt% (relative to the total preparation weight.) of organic and inorganic alkali metal and earth alkali salts. An example is shown in Formula 9.

Formula 9. Two phase cosmetic preparation14
Ethanol 60.000%
Magnesium sulfate 0.100
Fragrance (parfum) 0.250
Dicaprylyl carbonate 18.000
Isohexadecane 6.000
Glycerin 2.500
CI 14720 0.005
Water (aqua)

qs 100.000

Makeup
Pigment particles in W/O emulsions:
Kao Corporation in recent patent discloses water-in-oil cosmetic emulsion compositions containing uniformly dispersed pigment particles.15 The invention relates to particles having an average particle size of 1-100 nm in the water phase, wherein the emulsion shows improved coloring property. A method for forming the water-in-oil cosmetic emulsion is also disclosed. A silicone-treated titanium dioxide slurry was prepared from 40% methyl hydrogen polysiloxane-treated titanium dioxide, 2% polyoxyethylene lauryl ether phosphate sodium salta, 2% polyoxyethylene octyl dodecyl etherb, 0.2% of an anti-forming agent, 5.58% ethanol and 50.22 % water. Silicone-treated iron oxide slurries were also prepared in a similar way. The obtained slurries were mixed with other powders, glycerin, water, and oily phase components to obtain a water-in-oil cosmetic emulsion.

Antimicrobials
Salvia cryptantha and Salvia multicaulis as antimicrobials, antioxidants: Tepe et al.16 have studied the antimicrobial and antioxidative activities of the essential oils and methanol extracts of Salvia cryptantha and Salvia multicaulis. The essential oils were examined for their potential antimicrobial and radical scavenging activities. Little or no activity was observed when the polar and non-polar subfractions of the extracts were tested, whereas the essential oils exhibited antimicrobial activity. The essential oils isolated from S. cryptantha and S. multicaulis were analyzed by GC-MS; 53 and 47 constituents were identified, respectively.
Antioxidant activities of the polar subfraction of the essential oil were examined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl radical-scavenging and lipid peroxidation assays. The essential oils, in particular, and the non-polar subfractions of methanol extracts showed antioxidant activity.
In conclusion, the results indicate that the oils of S. cryptantha and S. multicaulis have the capacity to scavenge free radicals and to inhibit the growth of pathogenic microorganisms. Therefore they could be suitable for using as antimicrobial and antioxidative agents in the food and cosmetic industries.

Raw Materials
Cyclodextrins and encapsulation: Regiert reviews the cyclodextrins as another tool for encapsulation.17 Cyclodextrins are ring-shaped cylindrical molecules comprising a number of linked glucose molecules. Their complexes have the ability to wrap each individual molecule of the active ingredient, a process known as complexation. The cyclodextrins act as the host, and the accommodated molecule is the guest, which can be any molecule that is both small enough to fit inside the cavity and non-polar enough to interact with the lipophilic internal surface. In cosmetic and personal care products, the resulting complex releases the cosmetic substances on the skin exactly where it is needed. The advantages of using cyclodextrins in various products are described.
Soo-Jin Park et al. have written a book chapter reviewing microcapsules for fragrances and cosmetics.18 This chapter presents a systematic review of patents on fragrance and cosmetic microcapsules and microparticles. It describes the basic nature of fragrance and perfumery molecules and perfume construction and microencapsulation.
Perfumes are microencapsulated for improved long-term stability, efficacy, and controlled (or sustained) release over long periods. They are also often added as fragrants to other microencapsulated cosmetic products for body-care, air fresheners, wipe tissues, and detergents. The patents reviewed are also tabulated by formulation and microencapsulation of perfumes, and related devices for sustained perfume release based on fibers, fabrics, cyclodextrin, multilayer particles, selective aroma generators, and all types of natural and synthetic polymers used for these applications. Chemical structures of basic fragrant molecules, morphologies of different microcapsules, and examples of perfumed microcapsules, microspheres, fibers and fabrics are also discussed and illustrated. The review includes 173 references and 24 figures and tables.

a Nikkol TLP-4 is a product of Nikko Chemicals Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan.
b Emulgen 2025G is a product of Kao Corporation,Tokyo, Japan.


Reproduction of all or part of this article is strictly prohibited.

 

References
Address correspondence to Charles Fox, c/o Editor, Cosmetics & Toiletries magazine, 362 South Schmale Road, Carol Stream, IL 60188-2787 USA.

1. MO Visscher et al, Effect of soaking and natural moisturizing factor on stratum corneum water-handling properties, 
    J Cosmet Sci 54(3) 289-300 (2003)
2. DE 10,234,257, Self-warming cosmetic cleansing wipes impregnated with polyalcohols, Beiersdorf A-G, Germany
    (Feb 5, 2004)
3. JP 2004 35,420, Transparent cleansing cosmetics containing polyglycerin fatty acid esters, Sakamoto Yakuhin
    Kogyo Co Ltd, Japan (Feb 5, 2004)
4. WO 2004 10,965, Use of lignans for preventing or treating the signs of aging of the skin, L'Oreal, France (Feb 5,
    2004)
5. WO 2004 10,966, Cosmetics containing acylglucosamines, Lion Corporation, Japan (Feb 5, 2004)
6. DE 10,233,598, Curcuminoid-containing cosmetic and dermatological preparations, Beiersdorf AG, Germany
    (Feb12, 2004)
7. DE 10,233,599, 9-Octadecenedioic acid-containing cosmetic and dermatological preparations, Beiersdorf AG,
    Germany (Feb 12, 2004)
8. WO 2004 12,696, Retinoid-containing preparations with a water-soluble and an oil-soluble antioxidant, BASF
    Aktiengesellschaft, Germany (Feb 12, 2004)
9. Y Uchiumi et al, Activity of herbal extracts on the control of sebum secretion, Frag J 32(3) 53-57 (2004) (in
    Japanese)
10. EP 1,388,338, Foaming sunscreen composition containing a particulate organic sunscreen and emulsifier,
     Beiersdorf AG, Germany (Feb 11, 2004)
11. M Rangarajan et al, Effect of formulation on the topical delivery of alpha-tocopherol, J Cosmet Sci 54(2) 161-174
     (2003)
12. WO 2004 12,694, Clear personal care compositions containing visible capsules, The Gillette Company, USA
     (Feb 12, 2004)
13. JP 2004 35,458, Storage-stable transparent liquid cosmetics containing urea and fat-soluble vitamins, Kanebo
     Ltd, Japan (Feb 5, 2004)
14. DE 10,235,422, Cosmetic preparations composed of two phases without emulsifiers, Beiersdorf AG, Germany
     (Feb 12, 2004)
15. JP 2004 43,383, Water-in-oil cosmetic emulsion compositions containing uniformly dispersed pigment particles,
     Kao Corp, Japan (Feb 12, 2004)
16. B Tepe et al, Antimicrobial and antioxidative activities of the essential oils and methanol extracts of Salvia
     cryptantha and Salvia multicaulis, Food Chemistry 2004 84(4) 519-525 (2004) (in English)
17. M Regiert et al, Cyclodextrins: an other tool for encapsulation, SOFW Journal 129(6) 2, 4, 6, 8 (2003) (in
     English)
18. Soo-Jin Park et al, Microcapsules for fragrances and cosmetics, Microspheres, Microcapsules & Liposomes 6
     157-198 (2003) (in English)

 


Soaking and natural moisturization on the stratum corneum: Visscher et al. have studied the effect of soaking and natural moisturizing factor on stratum corneum water-handling properties.1 Stratum corneum (SC) hydration is partially regulated by water-soluble molecules, i.e., the natural moisturizing factor (NMF) that is associated with the corneocytes. Routine water exposure such as bathing may deplete NMF and alter the SC water-handling properties. The authors determined the effects of bathing and solvent extraction on the volar forearm skin of 11 healthy volunteers.
Acetone/ether (A/E) was used to remove surface and upper SC lipids. Adjacent sites were soaked for 10 minutes or treated with the A/E-plus-soak combination. Subsequently, an NMF formulation was applied to the treated sites, and transepidermal water loss (TEWL), hydration and moisture accumulation rate (MAT) were measured. A/E extraction increased TEWL, but did not effect MAT. Soaking produced a short-term increase in TEWL, followed by a decrease, and substantially reduced MAT, an effect that was maintained for 5 hours.
NMF application significantly decreased TEWL and significantly increased MAT for all sites. The replacement experiment suggests that the MAT reduction occurred as a result of extraction of hygroscopic NMF components. The effects of soaking and NMF application are more readily detected by the MAT technique, whereas TEWL is more sensitive to A/E extraction. The results support the use of multiple assessments of barrier function and raise questions about the effects of cumulative repeated water exposure on SC function.

Excerpt Only This is a shortened version or summary of the article that appeared in the Oct. 1, 2004 issue of Cosmetics & Toiletries magazine. If you would like a copy of the complete article, please contact us at customerservice@cosmeticsandtoiletries.com.