Personal Care Technologies Appearing in Recent Scientific and Patent Literature

Mar 1, 2008 | Contact Author | By: Charles Fox, Independent Consultant
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Title: Personal Care Technologies Appearing in Recent Scientific and Patent Literature
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Skin and Skin Care

SCI mildness studies: Ghosh et al. have studied the mildness of sodium cocoyl isethionate (SCI) on the skin barrier via an in vitro investigation of the relative sizes of the SCI micelles and skin pores.1 SCI is an important surfactant ingredient in mild, synthetic detergent (syndet) cleansing bars, and studies have shown it is more mild and less damaging to the skin barrier than soaps and surfactants such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS).

Researchers have shown that in aqueous solutions SDS forms smaller micelles than the pores in the stratum corneum (SC), and as a result, the SDS micelles can contribute to SDS skin penetration and induce skin barrier perturbation. In the presented research, the authors attempt to explain the well-documented skin mildness of SCI by examining the size of the SCI micelles relative to that of the aqueous pores in the SC. For this purpose, in vitro mannitol skin permeability and average skin resistance measurements were taken after skin was exposed to an aqueous SCI solution. In this context, the hindrance of solution transported though the pores in the SC was measured.

The studies demonstrated that an SCI micelle radius of 33.5 ± 1 Å, as determined using dynamic light-scattering measurements, showed significant steric hindrance and could not penetrate into the SC through aqueous pores with an average radius of 29 ± 5 Å. The researchers believed that the inability of the SCI micelles to contribute to SCI skin penetration and associated skin barrier perturbation is responsible for the observed skin mildness of SCI. 

Through in vitro quantitative skin radioactivity assays using 14C-radiolabeled SCI and full-thickness pigskin (p-FTS), the researchers also showed that SCI skin penetration is dose-independent, an important finding that provides additional evidence that larger SCI micelles cannot penetrate into the SC through the smaller pores in the SC. It therefore was concluded that SCI cannot induce skin barrier perturbation. 

N-long-chain acylglycine cleanser: Ajinomoto Co., Inc., discloses a cream-type skin cleansing composition comprising N-long-chain acylglycine.2 This invention relates to cream-type skin cleansing compositions containing substantially no polyhydric alcohols that are: weakly acidic with a pH of 4.0 to 6.0; soft and smooth with a white appearance; exhibit excellent foaming and rinseability; and provide good feeling during application. Such compositions also do not harden at low temperatures and can be prepared readily by using a common simple mixer. 

The described innovation contains an N-long-chain acylglycine or a salt thereof, a polyoxyethylene alkyl ether sulfate salt, a betaine-type amphoteric surfactant, an inorganic or organic salt, and water at a specified amount and pH level. An example is shown in Formula 1.

Polyoxyethylene phosphate, sulfate surfactant clenser: Kao Corp. discloses another skin cleansing composition incorporating polyoxyethylene phosphate and sulfate surfactants.3 The composition disclosed shows little irritation to the skin, has excellent foamability, generates a creamy foam, and provides good rinsing properties. The composition comprises a phosphoric acid ester surfactant mixture, a sulfuric acid ester surfactant, and at least one glyceryl ether and one polyoxyalkylene ether. An example, of a facial cleanser is shown in Formula 2.

Urea, trehalose for skin softening: Pola Chemical Industries discloses skin-softening cosmetic emulsion compositions containing urea and trehalose.4 The compositions described were created for softening the horny layer on elbows and ankles without causing skin irritation. A skin-softening composition with a minimized amount of triglyceride and monovalent alcohol fatty acid ester is also disclosed. An example is shown in Formula 3.

Hair and Hair Care

Cyclodextrins to reduce hair dye stain: Henkel KGaA discloses oxidative hair dyes containing cyclodextrins for reduced skin staining.5 The invention concerns oxidative hair dyes that are not applied with an oxidizing agent and that reduce skin staining including a reactive carbonyl compound, a CH-acidic compound, and at least one cyclodextrin. An example of such a hair dye is shown in Formula 4.

Hair bleaching and coloring agents: Henkel KGaA also discloses hair bleaching and coloring agents containing halogenated ketones.6 The invention concerns high-performance, low-irritant agents for bleaching and/or coloring keratin fibers, more particularly human hair containing at least 0.001–15.0% w/w of at least one halogenated ketone. The compositions further contains 0.001–5.0% w/w oxidative dye intermediate products or direct dyes. An example is shown in Formula 5.

In another patent granted to Henkel, a bleaching or coloring agent with improved skin compatibility containing imidazole derivatives is described.7 The invention relates to high-performance, low-irritant agents for bleaching or coloring keratin fibers, more particularly human hair. The agents contain between 0.001–5.0% w/w of one or more dye intermediate products or direct dyes, and between 0.1–20.0% w/w of at least one imidazole compound or their physiologically compatible salts. An example is shown in Formula 6.

Makeup 

Oily compositions: Kosei Co., Ltd., reveals oily cosmetic compositions containing fructooligosaccharide fatty acid esters, oils and acrylic-silicones.8The oily cosmetic composition forms a uniform, shiny and stable gel and provides a light feeling on the skin. The composition is characterized by containing a fructooligosaccharide fatty acid ester having an average sugar polymerization degree > 10 and an esterification degree per monosaccharide unit > 2.2, a nonsilicone liquid oil, and a long-chain alkyl group-containing acrylic-silicone graft copolymer. An oily cosmetic composition further containing a solid oil also is disclosed. For example, inulin stearate was prepared from inulin and stearoyl chloride. An example of a lipstick prepared with inulin stearate is shown in Formula 7.

Fluoro-treated powders in cosmetics:Kosei Co., Ltd., also discloses solid powder cosmetics comprising fluoro compound-treated powders.9 This invention relates to cosmetic powders that are smoothly applied and adhered well on the skin without caking. The powdery cosmetics comprise fluoro compound-treated powders, silicone-containing oils, partially crosslinked organopolysiloxanes, and multiporous powders. An example of a powder foundation is shown in Formula 8.

Another disclosure by Kosei Co., Ltd., describes oily cosmetic compositions containing heteromorphic composite powders and hollow polymer powders.10 The compositions are effective in providing uniform cosmetic film with a matte finish and without causing stickiness; they also exhibit good storage stability. The compositions are characterized by containing heteromorphic composite powders consisting of agglutinated plural roughly spherical powders with rough surfaces, and hollow polymer powders having an average particle diameter range of 1–80 mm and an apparent specific gravity < 0.5. An oily cosmetic composition further containing long-chain alkyl group-containing partially crosslinked organopolysiloxane or other powders is also disclosed. An example of a cake makeup foundation is shown in Formula 9.

Sunscreens

Ester quat as sand-repellent: Goldschmidt GmbH discloses the use of ester quat in compositions as a sand-repellent substance.11 The present application relates to the use of at least one ester quat based on alkanolamines, the ester quats producing a sand-repellent action and the acyl component of the ester quats being derived from monocarboxylic acids, dicarboxylic acids and tricarboxylic acids or their mixtures. An example is shown in Formula 10.

Screening out light radiation: An anonymous author discloses the use of an agent for screening out light radiation with a wavelength ranging from 340–430 nm.12 Disclosed is the use of (2-{4-[2-(4-diethylamino-2-hydroxy-benzoyl)-benzoyl]-piperazine-1-carbonyl}-phenyl)-(4-diethylamino-2-hydroxy-phenyl)-methanone for screening out light radiation with a wavelength ranging from 340–430 nm.

The micronized form of this compound is used for preventing the damaging effect of UVA and blue light and pro-vides an optimal protection against UVA-induced photoaging of human skin. 

The compound also may be used for preventing and treating skin pigmentation; preventing and treating photoaging of human skin; inhibiting the degradation of endogenous carotenoids present in the skin; treating skin disorders caused by sunlight such as pigmentation marks, actinic dermatitis and solar urticaria; protecting against UVA1-induced expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1, interleukin-1 and interleukin-6 in human dermal fibroblasts; preventing the generation of reactive oxygen species; and protecting UV-A sensitive pharmaceuticals. 

Compositions comprising this compound may constitute a skin care product, in particular for the face, neck, contours of the eye or the body; or a skin makeup product such as a tinting product, an eye shadow, a blusher, an eyeliner, a concealer, a body makeup product, a sun protection product or a skin cleansing product. 

Nail Enamel

Decorative nail enamel: Kirker Enterprises discloses a nail enamel composition comprising dye having a decorative color effect.13 This invention relates to a base coat nail enamel composition that forms a decorative color effect over natural or synthetic nails. The base coat composition includes a sufficient amount of at least one dye so that when a clear, tinted or pigmented top coat nail enamel composition is formed thereon, the combined base and top coat nail enamel compositions will exhibit a decorative effect by virtue of forming a different color than either the color of the base nail enamel composition or the top coat nail enamel composition. The composition of a base coat used is shown in Formula 11

Interesting Raw Materials

Grifola frondosa polysaccharides in cosmeceuticals: Kim et al. have published on the submerged production and characterization of Grifola frondosa polysaccharides, a new application to cosmeceuticals.14 G. frondosa (maitake) is known as “the king of mushrooms” and “the hen of the woods.” Both the fruiting bodies and the mycelium of maitake have been reported to have anti-tumor and antiviral activities. Recently, submerged culture processes have been developed with the intent of providing opportunities for increased economic exploitation of maitake. Commonly the aim of these processes is to produce extracellular polysaccharides (EPS), mostly glucans, and to explore their applications, particularly in the cosmetic industry. 

A wide variety of EPS with different molecular chain length and chemical compositions are produced under different culture conditions. In this article, various biological and physicochemical properties of the EPS of G. frondosa (GF-EPS) are described, with a view to applications in the area of functional cosmeceuticals. The GF-EPS, together with GF mycelial extract (GF-MPS), showed antioxidative activity, stimulation of collagen biosynthetic activity, cell proliferation activity, and inhibitory activity of melanogenesis without significant cytotoxicity. These diverse functionalities suggest that both GF-EPS and GF-MPS can be promising cosmetic ingredients. 

Inositol to accelerate thickening: Finnfeeds discloses the use of inositol for enhancing or accelerating swelling of a thickener in aqueous solutions for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, toiletries and food compositions.15 In addition to enhancing or accelerating swelling of a thickener compound, inositol also increases the thickening efficiency of the compound in a chemical composition, wherein the chemical composition is a pharmaceutical, cosmetic, toiletries or food composition. An example of an anti hair-loss lotion formulation using this principle is shown in Formula 12.

Interesting Vehicles

Silicone lotion for wet wipes: A.-M. Vincent et al. discuss the introduction of a novel silicone lotion for wet wipe applications.16 Dow Corning Corp. has recently developed a new silicone lotiona for wet wipe applications. This lotion is based on a concentrated emulsion technology and contains a naturally derived emulsifier system. The disclosed low viscosity lotion can be applied directly to wipes or diluted up to 50% with water before application. This ready-to-use lotion is compatible with a variety of different cosmetic ingredients that can be included for different skin effects; it also is said to offer excellent sensory attributes such as smoothness and reduced tackiness as well as mascara cleansing. 

Nanoemulsion for dermatological applications: Botica Commercial Farmaceutica Ltda. discloses a nanoemulsion, a production method thereof and a cosmetic and dermatological composition containing it.17 This invention describes a nanoemulsion based on an emulsifier ternary system that is stable under different temperature and physical stress conditions, besides being compatible with a variety of cosmetic ingredients. The production method thereof involves cold emulsification and homogenization steps that make possible the incorporation of active oily ingredients sensitive to higher temperatures.

The preparation of the nanoemulsion with the properties of this invention uses lecithin, a fatty acid ester, sorbitol condensed with ethylene oxide and an ester of fatty acid and sugar, in specific proportions as emulsifiers. Such nanoemulsions can be used in cosmetic and dermatological compositions aimed for care, protection and makeup of skin, mucosa, scalp and hair. An example of a facial night cream with a vitamin nanoemulsion is shown in Formula 13.

Silicone oils, polymers in o/w emulsions: Kosei Co., Ltd., describes o/w emulsions containing silicone oils and polymers.18 This invention relates to cosmetic emulsions that do not give a sticky feel while also providing glossy suppleness to the skin. The cosmetic emulsion contains volatile silicone oils, modified silicone oils, nonionic film-forming water-soluble polymers and optional polyoxyethylene fatty acid ethers with an HLB value between 10–18. An example is shown in Formula 14.

References

1. S Ghosh et al, Why is sodium cocoyl isethionate (SCI) mild to the skin barrier? An in vitro investigation based on the relative sizes of the SCI micelles and the skin aqueous pores, J of Cosmetic Science 58(3) 229–244 (2007)(in English)

2. US 2007 232,508, Cream-type skin cleansing composition comprising N-long-chain acylglycine, Ajinomoto Co. Inc., Japan (2007)

3. WO 2007 116,586, Cleansing compositions comprising polyoxyethylene phosphate and sulfate surfactants, Kao Corp, Japan (2007)

4. JP 2007 269,692, Skin-softening cosmetic emulsion compositions containing urea and trehalose, Pola Chemical Industries Inc., Japan (2007)

5. DE 102,006,062,437, Oxidative hair dyes containing cyclodextrins for reduced skin staining, Henkel KGaA, Germany (2007)

6. DE 102,006,018,779, Hair bleaching and coloring agents containing halogenated ketones, Henkel KGaA, Germany (2007)

7. WO 2007 118,616, Bleaching and/or coloring agent with improved skin compatibility containing imidazole derivatives, Henkel KGaA, Germany (2007)

8. JP 2007 269,691, Oily cosmetic compositions containing fructooligosaccharide fatty acid esters, oils and acrylic-silicones, Kosei Co. Ltd., Japan (2007)

9. JP 2007 269,697, Solid powder cosmetics comprising fluoro compound-treated powders, Kosei Co. Ltd., Japan (2007)

10. JP 2007 269,676, Oily cosmetic compositions containing heteromorphic composite powders and hollow polymer powders, Kosei Co. Ltd., Japan (2007)

11. US 2007 231,289, Use of esterquat in compositions as sand-repellent substances, Goldschmidt GmbH, Germany (2007)

12. Anon (USA), Use of an agent for screening out light radiation with a wavelength ranging from 340 to 430 nm, IP.com Journal, 7(1B) 28, No. IPCOM000145386D (in English) (2007)

13. US 2007 231,281, Nail enamel composition comprising dye having a decorative color effect, Kirker Enterprises Inc., USA (2007)

14. SW Kim et al, Submerged production and characterization of Grifola frondosa polysaccharides: A new application to cosmeceuticals, Food Technology and Biotechnology 45(3) 295–305 (2007) (in English)

15. WO 2007 113,391, Inositol application for enhancing and/or accelerating swelling of a thickener into aqueous solutions for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, toiletries and food compositions, Finnfeeds Finland Oy, Finland (2007)

16. A.-M. Vincent et al, Dow Corning introduces a novel silicone lotion for wet wipe applications, IP.com Journal, 6(12A) 18, No. IPCOM000143588D (in English) (2006)

17. EP1,839,644, Nanoemulsion, production method thereof and cosmetic and dermatological composition containing it, Botica Commercial Farmaceutica Ltda., Brazil (2007)

18. JP 2007 261,995, Oil-in-water emulsions containing silicone oils and polymers, Kosei Co. Ltd., Japan (2007)                    

 

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Formula 1. Cream type skin cleanser

 Formula 1. Cream type skin cleanser

Formula 2. Facial cleanser

 Formula 2. Facial cleanser

Formula 3. Skin-softening cream

Formula 3. Skin-softening cream

Formula 4. Hair dye cream

 Formula 4. Hair dye cream 

Formula 5. Cream hair dye

 Formula 5. Cream hair dye

Formula 6. Bleaching or coloring agent

 Formula 6. Bleaching or coloring agent 

Formula 7. Lipstick with inulin stearate

 Formula 7. Lipstick with inulin stearate

Formula 8. Powder foundation

 Formula 8. Powder foundation

Formula 9. Cake makeup foundation

 Formula 9. Cake makeup foundation

Formula 10. Sand repellent sunscreen

 Formula 10. Sand repellent sunscreen

Formula 11. Decorative nail enamel base coat

 Formula 11. Decorative nail enamel base coat

Formula 12. Anti-hair loss product

 Formula 12. Anti-hair loss product 

Formula 13. Night cream nanoemulsion

 Formula 13. Night cream nanoemulsion

Formula 14. Nonsticky glossy emulsion

 Formula 14. Nonsticky glossy emulsion

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