An Approach to Develop Cosmetics for Multi-tonal Brazilian Skin

Aug 25, 2014 | Contact Author | By: Doraci Aleixo Maciel, Dilene Foggi Bet, Edilson Luiz Rocha, Flavia Bogo Ribas and Valéria Maria Di Mambro, Grupo Boticário; and Érica de Oliveira Monteiro, E.M. Dermatologia
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Title: An Approach to Develop Cosmetics for Multi-tonal Brazilian Skin
skin colorx makeupx foundationx Brazilian skin typesx miscegenationx skin tonex
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Keywords: skin color | makeup | foundation | Brazilian skin types | miscegenation | skin tone

Abstract: In Brazil, people have many different colored skin tones, and women often struggle to match makeup shades to their skin color. This paper describes an exploratory study of hundreds of volunteers that was conducted to understand Brazilian women's skin color, ultimately to develop a makeup line for this widely diverse market.

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DA Maciel et al, An Approach to Develop Cosmetics for Multi-tonal Brazilian Skin, Cosmet & Toil 129(9) 28 (2014)

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The skin expresses messages and thoughts beyond words. It can indicate gender, age, ethnicity, general health and other information about an individual. The skin also transmits a state of mind and emotion, such as happiness, anguish, sadness and fear.1, 2 Daily makeup is therefore important not only for esthetics, but also to make the individual feel free from visible stigmas or deformities, and to improve self-esteem.3, 4

Makeup products have evolved significantly in recent years, incorporating ingredients that provide added benefits such as moisturizers, sunscreens and vitamins. Choosing the most suitable cosmetic for a particular individual will depend on the hue of the pigmentation to be concealed or the skin tone to be enhanced. Characteristics of the skin also should be determined in accordance with texture, moisture, color and oiliness.5-7

Currently, the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IGBO) uses five categories in the census concerning ethnicity and skin color: white, indigenous, black, brown and yellow. However, most Brazilian residents know that far more than these five skin colors are present in the region. The University of Campinas (UNICAMP) conducted a study in 2005 where more than 125 skin tones were identified in Brazil. Interestingly, the same study also revealed that every two years, four more tones appear.8

In Brazil, miscegenation is intense, and it is possible to find phototypes I to VI9 as well as several “subphototypes” in the various geographic regions of the country. One common complaint from women in this market is that they cannot find makeup that matches their skin color, especially those who are very pale, i.e., Fitzpatrick type I, or who have brown and black skin, i.e., types V and VI (see Table 1). In the professional market, makeup artists often combine two or more foundation tones to match the client’s color; however, this approach is not viable for most consumers, nor is it practical. According to internal consumer studies at the author’s company, Brazilian consumers, especially those having indigenous, brown and black skin color, usually import products from international sources offering a greater variety of colors, or try to mix two or more products at home in order to find the right tone for their skin.

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Table 1. Fitzpatrick skin phototypes

Table 1. Fitzpatrick skin phototypes

One common complaint from women in this market is that they cannot find makeup that matches their skin color, especially those who are very pale, i.e., Fitzpatrick type I, or who have brown and black skin, i.e., types V and VI.

Table 2. The 18 colors were adapted into products according to various needs

Table 2. The 18 colors were adapted into products according to various needs

Besides tone variety, four different foundation textures were developed; i.e., matte liquid, glossy, ultra-light and powder—as well as a compact powder and a concealer.

Figure 1. Four types of interaction between light and a surface11

Figure 1. Four types of interaction between light and a surface

Optical phenomena are produced by basic interaction mechanisms of light with matter. Incident light is absorbed and undergoes further refraction, direct reflection (specular), or scattered and diffuse reflection into and out of the skin at different angles, finally reaching the viewer’s eye.

Figure 2. Chromatic triangle

Figure 2. Chromatic triangle

Choosing a color from the opposite side of the chromatic “triangle” or “wheel” from the pigment of concern cancels out its prominence.

Figure 3. Volunteer in the skin study before (left) and after (right) application of makeup

Figure 3. Volunteer in the skin study before (left) and after (right) application of makeup

Initially, 38 liquid foundations were selected so that each participant could use a product that closely matched her skin color.

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