Recent in Biology (page 14 of 27)

Researchers Find Cavity-causing Bacteria in Infants

Researchers at the University of Illinois have confirmed the presence of bacteria associated with early childhood caries (ECC) in infant saliva. The research, which was published in PLoS One in the article “Comparative analysis of salivary bacterial microbiome diversity in edentulous infants and their mothers or primary care givers using pyrosequencing” proposes the need for infant oral care.

Keratinization: An Overview

Following is an excerpt adapted from Physiology of the Skin, Third Edition, which explores the process of keratinization.

Determining the Keratoltic Activities of Benzoyl Peroxide, Retinoic Acid and Salicylic Acid In vivo

Keratolysis is the separation or loosening of the stratum corneum (SC), and is part of the natural cycle of skin renewal and regeneration. Disordered keratolysis, resulting in skin overgrowth or excessive desquamation, is responsible for various skin disorders.

Researchers Identify Hair Pigmentation Pathway

Researchers at New York University's Langone Medical Center have identified the communication pathway between hair follicles and melanocyte stem cells that regenerates pigmented hair.

Glycation and Skin Aging: A Review

The present article, adapted from Draelos and Pugliese*, provides a review of the chemistry involved in the glycation process to assist formulators in developing topical or nutricosmetic solutions for mature skin care.

pH Buffering Considerations in Mature Skin

This paper briefly reviews the basic science of pH and buffering capacity and the deleterious effects of increased pH in mature skin. In more detail, the authors consider which components of the stratum corneum (SC) are likely responsible for buffering capacity in skin of all ages, and discuss physiologic changes in the SC that may contribute to the decreased buffering capacity detected in mature skin.

Researchers Observe Hair Follicle Communication for Hair Growth

Researchers at the University of Southern California's Keck School of Medicine have discovered that stem cells in hair follicles communicate with each other via a specific molecular activator/inhibitor pair to stimulate hair growth.

Borate Glass Nanofibers for Wound Healing

Recent research published by the American Ceramic Society shows that a particular borate glass composition can be used to form cottony glass fibers 300 nm to 5 μm in diameter to mimic the structure of fibrin, which in turn has been shown to support the wound healing process.

A Review of Anti-irritants, Part II: Moisturizer, Anti-irritant Efficacy and Overall Interpretation*

his column is the second of a two-part series about anti-irritants. Part I appeared in the March 2011 issue and covered anti-irritants, irritant reaction and barrier cream efficacy. The present column summarizes the efficacy of moisturizers and anti-irritant substances and provides an overall interpretation.

Research Identifies Regulator to Start/Stop Skin Growth

A recent report from Children's Hospital Boston reveals how researchers in the Stem Cell Program have discovered a regulator of gene activity that tells epidermal stem cells when to grow more skin or that can sense cell crowding and cease the growth.

A Review of Anti-Irritants, Part I: Barrier Cream Efficacy on Contact Dermatitis*

This column is the first of a two-part series about anti-irritants. Part two will appear in the April 2011 issue. While the first part covers anti-irritants, irritant reaction and barrier cream efficacy, part two will summarize the efficacy of moisturizers and anti-irritant substances and provide an overall interpretation of both parts I and II.

Desmosomes: Adhesion Answers to Skin

Garrod became interested in cell adhesion after reading a paper on the differential adhesion hypothesis by Malcolm Steinberg, and he more recently discovered the mechanism that allows these structures to tightly bind cells together.

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