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Recent in Biology (page 13 of 21)

Smoking and Premature Aging

Multiple environmental factors are associated with facial aging; evidence suggests that smoking 20 cigarettes per day is equivalent in effect to almost 10 years of chronological aging. Therefore, lifestyle recommendations to stop or delay facial skin aging are also very useful in promoting public health.

The Hardening Phenomenon in Irritant Contact Dermatitis: Cosmetic Implications

Irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) is common and poses a significant problem in high risk populations including hairdressers, health care workers, metal-working professionals and cleaning specialists.

Hormesis and Cosmetic Dermatology

This review examines hormetic effects of various agents on skin biology. Recognition of this emerging biological phenomenon in dermatology could lead to markedly improved integrative assessments of animal/human skin responses to toxic substances and pharmacological agents, as well as endogenous agonists.

A Review of Anti-irritants, Part II: Moisturizer, Anti-irritant Efficacy and Overall Interpretation

his column is the second of a two-part series about anti-irritants. Part I appeared in the March 2011 issue and covered anti-irritants, irritant reaction and barrier cream efficacy. The present column summarizes the efficacy of moisturizers and anti-irritant substances and provides an overall interpretation.

Desmosomes: Adhesion Answers to Skin

Garrod became interested in cell adhesion after reading a paper on the differential adhesion hypothesis by Malcolm Steinberg, and he more recently discovered the mechanism that allows these structures to tightly bind cells together.

A Review of Anti-Irritants, Part I: Barrier Cream Efficacy on Contact Dermatitis*

This column is the first of a two-part series about anti-irritants. Part two will appear in the April 2011 issue. While the first part covers anti-irritants, irritant reaction and barrier cream efficacy, part two will summarize the efficacy of moisturizers and anti-irritant substances and provide an overall interpretation of both parts I and II.

Sea Cucumber Peptides to Affect Collagen

Sea cucumbers, considered a delicacy in East and Southeast Asia, may not be pleasing to the eye but could be pleasing to the complexion. These slippery creatures belong to the animal group of echinoderms, which possess an adaptive feature called mutable connective tissue. While investigating this phenomenon, Maurice Elphick, PhD, and his research team from Queen Mary University of London’s School of Biological and Chemical Sciences not only identified the genes that encode the peptides to make this tissue stiffen and soften, but also have hypothesized that one of these peptides may be used in anti-aging skin care

The Professional Face of Skin Care

Skin care practice is often culturally ingrained and guided by ritual. There are numerous professions concerned with the skin: the dermatologist, the dermatology nurse, the esthetician and even the skin care sales assistant. Their expertise, approach, perspective and degree of authority in skin care decision-making is different. Yet, finding common denominators is beneficial, and all of these professionals are skin care consumers themselves.

The Professional Face of Skin Care

Skin care practice is often culturally ingrained and guided by ritual. There are numerous professions concerned with the skin: the dermatologist, the dermatology nurse, the esthetician and even the skin care sales assistant. Their expertise, approach, perspective and degree of authority in skin care decision-making is different. Yet, finding common denominators is beneficial, and all of these professionals are skin care consumers themselves.

Potential Differences in Percutaneous Penetration, Barrier Function Between Individuals of Different Ethnicity or Skin Color

The current understanding of percutaneous penetration and parameters that can influence it remains a sub judice area. Ethnicity or pigmentation, for instance, can be implied in percutaneous absorption for which several studies, described here, have been conducted to clarify their roles.

Variations in Pigmentation and Ultrastructural Skin Differences Among Ethnic Groups*

As formulators create products for varying ethnic backgrounds and with diverse skin types, an understanding of differences in pigmentation and skin structure and function becomes more important. This column reviews recent studies on the structural, genetic and ultraviolet (UV)-responsive differences in skin pigmentation to allow the formulator to create successful products for varying ethnicities and to accurately measure pigmentation.

Enhancing Sunscreen Efficacy for Realistic Application

The ability of a sunscreen to protect the skin from erythema is expressed on product labels as the sunburn protection factor (SPF)—i.e., the ratio of the minimum erythema dose (MED) with sunscreen to the MED without protection. Yet in reality, consumers do not apply the same mass/cm2 as is utilized in SPF testing, so maximal protection is not achieved.

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