Characterizing and Evaluating the Effectiveness of Volcanic Pumice Exfoliants

Nov 1, 2012 | Contact Author | By: M Estanqueiro (MD), G Bossolani, MH Amaral (PhD), J Conceição, D.Santos (PhD) and JM Sousa Lobo (PhD), University of Porto; and JB Silva (PhD) and CSF Gomes (PhD), University of Aveiro
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Title: Characterizing and Evaluating the Effectiveness of Volcanic Pumice Exfoliants
exfoliation cosmeticsx gelsx soapsx skin biometric testx
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Keywords: exfoliation cosmetics | gels | soaps | skin biometric test

Abstract: Pumice has a recognized application­­­­ as an abrasive agent to promote exfoliation of the skin. In this study, different particle size fractions of pumice sampled from several geologic occurrences in São Miguel’s island, the Azores archipelago, were used in the preparation of exfoliation formulations. Gels and soap were prepared and characterized, and their efficacy evaluated.

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Human skin, more specifically facial skin, periodically needs a deep cleansing to remove not only the oily particles resulting from secretions, but also dead skin caused by desquamation of the epidermis.1Cleansers are designed to remove dirt, sweat, sebum and oils from the skin, which helps to promote normal exfoliation and thereby rejuvenates the skin.However, the use of cleansers can lead to a reduction in the level of the natural moisturizing factor (NMF) of skin.Factors that reduce the water content can lead to changes in skin´s viscoelasticity.4 Further, harsh cleansers such as soaps can induce dryness, leading to scaly and rough skin.5 These effects may be much more severe during winter months when the air is cold and dry.

Visible skin dryness has been found to correlate positively with a lack of surface hydration.2 Minimizing damage caused by cleansers is therefore the first step toward cleansing without compromise. The second step is compensating for the level of damage caused by cleansers by providing moisturizing benefits during washing.By moisturizing skin, optimal levels of hydration and plasticization are maintained, allowing skin to retain its normal viscoelasticity.6

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Table 1

Table 1. Results of skin biometric parameters determined before (T0) and after (T30) the application of EP 125 and SP 125 (average ± standard deviation)

Figure 1. Test area of the forehead

Figure 1. Test area of the forehead

Figure 2. Variation of firmness of gel formulations stored 30 days at 20ºC

Figure 2. Variation of firmness of gel formulations stored 30 days at 20ºC

Figure 3. Variation of adhesiveness of gel formulations stored 30 days at 20ºC

Figure 3. Variation of adhesiveness of gel formulations stored 30 days at 20ºC

Figure 4. Variation of the viscosity of gel base stored 30 days at 20ºC

Figure 4. Variation of the viscosity of gel base stored 30 days at 20ºC

Figure 5. Variation of the viscosity of GP 125 stored 30 days at 20ºC

Figure 5. Variation of the viscosity of GP 125 stored 30 days at 20ºC

Figure 6. Variation of the viscosity of GP 250 stored 30 days at 20ºC

Figure 6. Variation of the viscosity of GP 250 stored 30 days at 20ºC

Figure 8. Variation of the viscosity of EP 125 stored 30 days at 20ºC

Figure 8. Variation of the viscosity of EP 125 stored 30 days at 20ºC

Figure 9. Variation of the viscosity of EP 250 stored 30 days at 20ºC

Figure 9. Variation of the viscosity of EP 250 stored 30 days at 20ºC

Figure 10. Box plot of hydration and sebum values determined before (T0) and after (T30) exfoliation with EP 125 and SP 125

Figure 10. Box plot of hydration and sebum values determined before (T0) and after (T30) exfoliation with EP 125 and SP 125

Figure 12. Box plot of volume and energy values

Figure 12. Box plot of volume and energy values determined a) before (T0) and b) after (T30) exfoliation with EP 125 and SP 125

Figure 13. Box plot of SEr and SEsc values

Figure 13. Box plot of SEr and SEsc values determined a) before (T0) and b) after (T30) exfoliation with EP 125 and SP 125

Figure 14. Box plot of SEsm and SEw values

Figure 14. Box plot of SEsm and SEw values determined a) before (T0) and b) after (T30) exfoliation with EP 125 and SP 125

Figure 7. Variation of the viscosity of GP 500 stored 30 days at 20ºC

Figure 7. Variation of the viscosity of GP 500 stored 30 days at 20ºC

Skin Characterization Variables

  • Surface: Relates the real topography with the same surface made smooth by stretching.
  • Volume: Calculated by the quantity of liquid necessary to complete the surface to the average height of all peaks of the waves.
  • Energy (NRJ): Indicates the general assessment of the state of activity of the skin; new skin, elastic and highly hydrated, has a high value.
  • Smoothness (SEsm): Calculated from the average width and depth of wrinkles.
  • Roughness (SEr): In contrast to SEsm, SEr calculates the gray levels above the threshold in comparison with the entire image. This reflects the “asperity” of the skin.
  • Scaliness (SEsc): Measures the level of dryness of the stratum corneum; reflects the state of dehydration of the skin.
  • Wrinkles (SEw): Calculated from the proportion of horizontal and vertical wrinkles.

a-m

a PFC gel, aloe vera and imidazolidinyl urea are products of Guinama.

b Stearic acid, glycerine and triethanolamine are products of Acofarma.

c Propylene glycol is a product of José Vaz Pereira.

d The DV-E rotational viscometer is manufactured by Brookfield.

e The TA-XT2i texturometer is manufactured by Stable Micro Systems.

f The 691 pH meter used for this study is manufactured by Metrohm.

g The MPA9 multiprobe equipment,

h Corneometer CM825,

j Skin-pH-meter PH905,

k Sebumeter SM815,

m Visioscan VC98, and

n Surface Evaluation of the Living Skin (SELS) software are manufactured by Courage-Khazaka.

Figure 11. Box plot of pH and surface values

Figure 11. Box plot of pH and surface values determined a) before (T0) and b) after (T30) exfoliation with EP 125 and SP 125

Formula 1. Test gel compositions (in %w/w)

Formula 1. Test gel compositions (in %w/w)

Formula 2. Soap compositions (in %w/w)

Formula 2. Soap compositions (in %w/w)

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