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Dec 23, 2005 | 04:26 PM CST
By: Charles Fox
A historical review on the epidermal permeability barrier: Elias has published a historical review on the epidermal permeability barrier dating from the early days at Harvard to newly emerging concepts. This is a must-read article if you are the least bit interested in skin physiology. I will attempt to cover the highlights here. Elias begins with the statement, “Perhaps no tissue is so physically maligned by processing for light/electron microscopy as is the stratum corneum (SC). To further complicate matters, no tissue of such critical importance for survival has been so intellectually maligned as well.” He then traces the work of now famous investigators including Kligman, Blank and Scheuplein.
Dec 23, 2005 | 04:20 PM CST
By: Larry Plonsker, Chemical Network Associates
We have described technology transfer as the bridge between invention and innovation. Innovation is the process of taking ideas, inventions or concepts to a successful commercial conclusion. The importance of innovation in the U.S. economy was the subject of a recent Thomas Friedman article in the New York Times.1 In Bangalore, India, Friedman asked a Ph.D. economist from a U.S. university how she felt about the outsourcing of U.S. jobs to India. She replied with a story about a man in America who lost his job this way but made a good business of selling T-shirts that complained about losing a job to India, and not getting anything but “this [lousy] T-shirt.” Her comment was “only in America would someone figure out how to profit from his own unemployment.”
Dec 23, 2005 | 04:07 PM CST
By: Charles Fox
Care Topical N-acetyl cysteine: Yu and Van Scott disclose the topical use of Nacetyl cysteine. Methods are described to alleviate or improve various cosmetic conditions and dermatological disorders, including the following: changes or damage to skin, nails and hair; damage associated with intrinsic aging and/or extrinsic aging; as well as changes or damage caused by extrinsic factors. These methods use compositions containing Nacetyl-cysteine (isomeric or non-isomeric forms) and/or free acid, salt, lactone, amide or ester forms of N-acetyl-cysteine. The methods provided may also require application of a composition that contains – in addition to ingredients already mentioned – various cosmetic, pharmaceutical or other topical agents to enhance–or create synergetic effects.
Dec 23, 2005 | 04:05 PM CST
By: Hongbo Zhai, MD, and Howard I. Maibach, MD, Un…
This is the third article in a series discussing effects of occlusion on skin. Previously, we reviewed the effects of occlusion on the percutaneous absorption (C&T November 2003) and on wound healing (C&T April 2004). The present article focuses and summarizes the adverse effects of occlusion. Occlusion enhances skin hydration and increases percutaneous absorption of applied substances with exception. On the other hand, it may also increase the penetration of irritants and/or antigens entering into skin and hence may increase irritant and allergic contact dermatitis. Additionally, occlusion compromises skin barrier function by impairing passive transepidermal water loss at the application site, and hence aggravates the irritant effect of applied compounds.
Dec 23, 2005 | 04:01 PM CST
By: John I. Yablonski and Sharon E. Mancuso, Bio-C…
In order to control microbial contamination in personal care wet wipes, one must understand the substrate raw materials, the requirements of the manufacturing environment, the complexity of the product system and the specialized equipment employed in the processing and packaging operations.
Dec 23, 2005 | 03:59 PM CST
By: Shelly Corcorran, Robert Y. Lochhead and Tonya…
The fundamentals of particle-stabilized emulsions are outlined here, and comparison are made to surfactantstabilized emulsions. Recent advances in Pickering emulsions for cosmetics are described in this survey article.
Dec 23, 2005 | 03:52 PM CST
By: Charles Fox
Care Boron and manganese salts and keratinocytes: Chebassier et al report on the stimulatory effect of boron and manganese salts on keratinocytes. Keratinocyte proliferation and migration are essential for the reconstruction of the cutaneous barrier after skin injury. Interestingly, thermal waters which are rich in trace elements (e.g. boron and manganese) are known to improve wound healing.
Dec 23, 2005 | 03:21 PM CST
By: Charles Fox, Independent Consultant
In a recent patent L’Oreal describes cosmetic compositions containing colloidal silica-alumina composite particles. The composition is used for smoothing wrinkles and skin. An example is shown in Formula 1.
Dec 23, 2005 | 03:04 PM CST
By: Bobeck S. Modjtahedi, Sara P. Modjtahedi and H…
Are females more sensitive to allergens than males? If they are, is it because of something innate in female skin or because of life patterns of exposure to irritants?
Dec 23, 2005 | 02:40 PM CST
By: Charles Fox
Takagi et al report on the barrier reinforcing function of synthetic compounds called quasi-ceramides.