Build a solid foundation in science, formulation and product development—find out more!
Most Popular in:
Science Exposed—What Should the Minimum Recommended SPF Be to Avoid Sunburn?
By: Brian Diffey, PhD DSc, Newcastle University, UK
Posted: January 26, 2012, from the February 2012 issue of Cosmetics & Toiletries.
page 3 of 3
1. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, Skin cancer: Prevention using public information, sun protection resources and changes to the environment, available at www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/live/13310/52562/52562.pdf (accessed Dec 4, 2011)
2. Department of Health and Human Services, FDA, USA, Labeling and effectiveness testing; Sunscreen drug products for over-the-counter human use, Federal Register 76(117) 35620-35665, 17 (Jun 2011)
3. BL Diffey, Has the sun protection factor had its day? Br Med J 320 176-177 (2000)
4. BL Diffey, Sunscreens: Expectation and realization, Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 25 233–236 (2009)
5. P Autier, M Boniol and J-F Doré, Sunscreen use and increased duration of intentional sun exposure: Still a burning issue, Int J Cancer 121 1–5 (2007)
6. MA Wright, ST Wright and RF Wagner, Mechanisms of sunscreen failure, J Am Acad Dermatol 44: 781–784 (2001)
7. BL Diffey and Z Norridge, Reported sun exposure, attitudes to sun protection and perceptions of skin cancer risk: A survey of visitors to Cancer Research UK’s SunSmart campaign website, Br J Dermatol 160 1292–1298 (2009)
8. H Dixon, R Shatten and R Borland, Reaction to the 1995/1996 SunSmart Campaign: Results from a representative household survey of Victorians, in: SunSmart Evaluation Studies No 5. Melbourne: Anti-Cancer Council of Victoria 70–96 (1997)
9. T-C Ling, C Faulkner and LE Rhodes, A questionnaire survey of attitudes to and usage of sunscreens in northwest England, Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 19 98–101 (2003)
10. AR Young, GE Orchard, GI Harrison and JL Klock, The detrimental effects of daily sub-erythemal exposure on human skin in vivo can be prevented by a daily-care broad-spectrum sunscreen, J Invest Dermatol 127 975–978 (2007)
Cosmetic Science Exposed, Wiechers' Style
Memories of a Cosmetically Disturbed Mind is a timely manifesto of what our industry is meant to represent. Whether you agree or disagree with Johann Wiechers' views on the state of the global cosmetic industry, this book will blow your scientific mind! Johann is no longer here with us, but he left us much to think about.Order Today at Alluredbooks-Cosmetic Science