PEG-2 Caprylylamine: A New Adjuvant Surfactant to Boost Lather Rate

Apr 1, 2013 | Contact Author | By: Shou Ooshida, Kawaken Fine Chemical Co., Ltd.
Your message has been sent.
(click to close)
Contact the Author
Save
This item has been saved to your library.
View My Library
(click to close)
Save to My Library
Title: PEG-2 Caprylylamine: A New Adjuvant Surfactant to Boost Lather Rate
PEG-2 caprylylaminex lather boosterx lathering ratex surface tensionx
  • Article
  • Media
  • Keywords/Abstract
  • Related Material

Keywords: PEG-2 caprylylamine | lather booster | lathering rate | surface tension

Abstract: PEG-2 caprylylamine, when used as an adjuvant surfactant formulated in a basic cleanser, can significantly increase lathering rate, as sensory evaluations, dynamic and static surface tension measurements, and the Ross-Miles method show here. Mechanisms of action for this new field of research also are discussed.

View citation for this article

S Ooshida, PEG-2 Capylylamine: A New Adjuvant Surfactant to Boost Lather Rate, Cosmet & Toil 128(4) 140 (2013)

Excerpt Only This is a shortened version or summary of the article you requested. To view the complete article, please log in or create an account. Registration is Free!

Adequate lather is an important factor to consumers when they select toiletries. Another preference is long-lasting and weak acidity (pH 4.5–6.0) on the skin and scalp, which maintains healthy normal skin conditions while suppressing the growth of undesirable microbes and skin irritation. These preferences are met by a noticeable trend in product development to formulate silicones, higher alcohols and a variety of functional materials into toiletries. However, such ingredients, along with primary surfactants, generally suppress lather, and their use can result in slow foaming or reduced volume of foam.1 Thus, there are strong demands from the industry for an ingredient such as an adjuvant surfactant that is compatible with the complicated and diverse formulae necessary to meet consumer demands for both long-lasting, weak acidity and lather. The author describes efforts to develop such a surfactant here.

Increasing Foam

Foaming is important to accelerate the cleaning power of products. While surfactants are used to blend oil-soluble materials with water to carry oils away, the act of foaming removes dirt. This combined effort is typically accomplished with surfactants and/or the addition of other adjuvants, e.g., surfactants having foam-boosting properties. Fatty acid alkanolamides (FAAs) commonly are used in cleaning products and are reported to increase foam volume based on a stabilization effect. Yet, in a preliminary in-house examination, all FAAs failed to significantly increase lathering rate, according to sensory evaluations.

Excerpt Only This is a shortened version or summary of the article you requested. To view the complete article, please log in or create an account. Registration is Free!

 

Close

Table 1. Sensory evaluation of adjuvant surfactants

Table 1. Sensory evaluation of adjuvant surfactants

The standard formula used for sensory evaluation tests (see Formula 1) was a binary system comprised of an amino acid-type surfactant, sodium lauroyl methylaminopropionate (SLMAP)a as the primary surfactant, and one of the surfactants listed in Table 1 as an adjuvant surfactant.

Table 2. CMC of adjuvant surfactants

Table 2. CMC of adjuvant surfactants

In addition, not only the monomer but also the condition of the micelle could be involved since the concentration of surfactants in the binary solution was higher than CMC (see Table 2).

Figure 1. PEG-2 caprylylamine (P2C8) structure

Figure 1. PEG-2 caprylylamine (P2C8) structure

Interestingly, researchers noted that adding a small amount of PEG-2 caprylylamine (P2C8) (see Figure 1) to primary surfactants having inferior initial bubbling dramatically improved the lathering and stability of the foams produced during the sensory tests.

Figure 2. Lathering model simulated by bubbling air into a surfactant aqueous solution via a capillary tube

Figure 2. Lathering model simulated by bubbling air into a surfactant aqueous solution via a capillary tube

For example, when a lathering model was simulated by bubbling air into a surfactant aqueous solution via a capillary tube (see Figure 2), the following sequence for lathering occurred.

Figure 3. Dynamic surface tension (mN/m) of PEG-2 alkylamines

Figure 3. Dynamic surface tension (mN/m) of PEG-2 alkylamines

Since DST was considered to provide the best understanding of the effect, the arithmetic averages of DSTs measured between 100 and 1,000 msec for each screened sample are shown in Figure 3.

Figure 4. Surface tension with P2C8 was nearly twice as large as the others.

Figure 4. Surface tension with P2C8 was nearly twice as large as the others.

The time-course foam volume of common surfactants and P2C8 are shown in Figure 4.

Figure 5. Foam height as measured by RMM

Figure 5. Foam height as measured by RMM

As shown in Figure 5, the test sample with P2C8 and the comparative samples with cocamide MEA (MEA) and cocamidemethyl MEA (CMEA) were prepared in the common formula including PC/CAPB/MEA.

Figure 6. Schematic states of micelle and aqueous solution of P2C8 and P2C12 with PL, respectively

Figure 6. Schematic states of micelle and aqueous solution of P2C8 and P2C12  with PL, respectively

The researchers propose the following action mechanisms, as shown in Figure 6, for P2C8 to increase the lathering rate and foam volume, and to maintain the foam volume.

Footnotes

a Alanon ALE (INCI: Sodium Lauroyl Methylaminopropionate) and b Amisol LDE (INCI: Lauroyl Diethanolamine) are products of Kawaken Fine Chemicals.
c Nonsal LK-2 (INCI: Potassium Laurate) is a product of NOF Corp.
d Amisol CME (INCI: Cocamide MEA) is a product of Kawaken Fine Chemicals.
e Aminon C-11S (INCI: Cocamidemethyl MEA) is a product of Kao Corp.
f Nonsal LK-30 (INCI: Potassium Cocoate) is a product of NOF Corp.

Formula 1. Formula for sensory evaluation

Formula 1. Formula for sensory evaluation

The standard formula used for sensory evaluation tests (see Formula 1) was a binary system comprised of an amino acid-type surfactant, sodium lauroyl methylaminopropionate (SLMAP)a as the primary surfactant, and one of the surfactants listed in Table 1 as an adjuvant surfactant.

Next image >

 
 

Close

It's Free...

Register or Log in to get full access to this content

Registration includes:

  • Access to all premium content
  • One click ingredient sample requests
  • Save articles in the My Library tool

Create an Account or Log In