Hydrolyzed Jojoba Esters to Potentiate Glycerin Moisturization

Feb 1, 2011 | Contact Author | By: Tiffany N. Oliphant and Douglas W. Gilmore, Floratech; and Robert A. Harper, PhD, Harper and Associates
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Title: Hydrolyzed Jojoba Esters to Potentiate Glycerin Moisturization
hydrolyzed jojoba estersx potentiation of moisturizationx mechanism of actionx
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Keywords: hydrolyzed jojoba esters | potentiation of moisturization | mechanism of action

Abstract: Hydrolyzed jojoba esters were incorporated into formulas including a lotion, hand sanitizer and nonwoven wipes. Small, well-controlled clinical studies were then conducted to compare the formulas with or without glycerin. Results show the esters can potentiate the skin moisturizing effect of glycerin under varying formula conditions. A mechanism of action also is discussed.

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TN Oliphant, DW Gilmore and RA Harper, Hydrolyzed Jojoba Esters to Potentiate Glycerin Moisturization, Cosmet & Toil 126(2) (2011)

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Hydrolyzed jojoba esters are derived from jojoba oil, a unique natural oil expressed from the seed of the jojoba plant. Jojoba oil (INCI: Simmondsia Chinensis (Jojoba) Seed Oil) is unlike other “fixed,” i.e. botanically derived, oils in that it is a true wax ester, in contrast to the triglyceride oils often found in the seeds of other botanical species. Jojoba oil primarily consists of straight chain monoesters of C20 and C22 alcohols and fatty acids with one point of unsaturation on each side of the ester linkage.1 It is the only known botanical wax ester that remains liquid at room temperature. In addition, its chemical structure is similar to the large wax ester component of human skin sebum, making jojoba oil well-suited to augment skin moisturization and barrier repair.

Similarly, hydrolyzed jojoba esters (HJEs) also exhibit unique moisturization and substantive properties in cosmetic and personal care formulations, as will be shown. HJEs are the partial saponification product of jojoba oil, whereby the ester bond linking the constituent fatty acids and alcohols is severed, thus liberating the hydrophobic fatty alcohol and creating a hydrophilic salt of the jojoba fatty acid (see Figure 1).

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Figure 1. Formation of hydrolyzed jojoba esters (saponified jojoba oil)

Figure 1. Formation of hydrolyzed jojoba esters (saponified jojoba oil)

HJEs are the partial saponification product of jojoba oil, whereby the ester bond linking the constituent fatty acids and alcohols is severed, thus liberating the hydrophobic fatty alcohol and creating a hydrophilic salt of the jojoba fatty acid (see Figure 1.)

Figure 2. Percent increase in skin hydration resulting from the application of lotion formulations with or without 0.4% H1, relative to untreated skin

Figure 2. Percent increase in skin hydration resulting from the application of lotion formulations with or without 0.4% H1, relative to untreated skin

Figure 2 shows the percent increase in moisturization over eight hours.

Figure 3. Percent increase in skin hydration resulting from the application of hand sanitizer formulations with or without 1% H1, relative to untreated skin

Figure 3. Percent increase in skin hydration resulting from the application of hand sanitizer formulations with or without 1% H1, relative to untreated skin

Further, the test formula including 1% H1 also maintained an increased level of moisturization over 4 hr (see Figure 3).

Figure 4. Percent increase in skin hydration resulting from the application of a hydroalcoholic formulation via nonwoven wipe with or without 1% H1 or 0.2% H2, relative to untreated skin

Figure 4. Percent increase in skin hydration resulting from the application of a hydroalcoholic formulation via nonwoven wipe with or without 1% H1 or 0.2% H2, relative to untreated skin

Figure 4 shows the percent increase in moisturization over 2 hr.

Figure 5. Percent increase in skin hydration resulting from the application of a nonalcohol- based formulation via nonwoven wipe with or without 0.5% H1 or 0.1% H2, relative to untreated skin

Figure 5. Percent increase in skin hydration resulting from the application of a nonalcohol- based formulation via nonwoven wipe with or without 0.5% H1 or 0.1% H2, relative to untreated skin

Moisturization was maintained over 4 hr and this extended moisturization was not observed with the vehicle (see Figure 5.)

Figure 6. Hydrolyzed jojoba ester molecules; Note: Image produced using Hyperchem r.8 (Hypercube Inc., Gainesville, FL USA)

Figure 6. Hydrolyzed jojoba ester molecules; Note: Image produced using Hyperchem r.8 (Hypercube Inc., Gainesville, FL USA)

The alcohols and salts of the fatty acids of HJEs generally orient themselves in an orderly, anisotropic geometry at room temperature (see Figure 6).

Figure 7. Hydrolyzed jojoba ester (and) glycerin molecules; Note: Image produced using Hyperchem r.8 (Hypercube Inc., Gainesville, FL USA)

Figure 7. Hydrolyzed jojoba ester (and) glycerin molecules; Note: Image produced using Hyperchem r.8 (Hypercube Inc., Gainesville, FL USA)

When glycerin, shown here by an arrow, is added to the system, the HJEs break free of the highly ordered geometry, thereby trapping glycerin (see Figures 7, 8 and 9).

Figure 8. Highlighted (green) jojoba alcohol portion of hydrolyzed jojoba ester molecule; Note: Image produced using Hyperchem r.8 (Hypercube Inc., Gainesville, FL USA)

Figure 8. Highlighted (green) jojoba alcohol portion of hydrolyzed jojoba ester molecule; Note: Image produced using Hyperchem r.8 (Hypercube Inc., Gainesville, FL USA)

When glycerin, shown here by an arrow, is added to the system, the HJEs break free of the highly ordered geometry, thereby trapping glycerin (see Figures 7, 8 and 9).

Figure 9. Highlighted (green) jojoba salt portion of hydrolyzed jojoba ester molecule; Note: Image produced using Hyperchem r.8 (Hypercube Inc., Gainesville, FL USA)

Figure 9. Highlighted (green) jojoba salt portion of hydrolyzed jojoba ester molecule; Note: Image produced using Hyperchem r.8 (Hypercube Inc., Gainesville, FL USA)

When glycerin, shown here by an arrow, is added to the system, the HJEs break free of the highly ordered geometry, thereby trapping glycerin (see Figures 7, 8 and 9).

Footnote (CT1102 Oliphant)

a Floraesters K-20W Jojoba (INCI: Hydrolyzed Jojoba Esters (and) Water (aqua)) is a product of Floratech, Chandler, AZ, USA.
b Floraesters K-100 Jojoba (INCI: Hydrolyzed Jojoba Esters (and) Jojoba Esters (and) Water (aqua)) is a product of Floratech, Chandler, AZ, USA.
c Ivory Soap is a product of Procter and Gamble, Cincinnati, USA.
d The CM 825 Corneometer is a product of Courage and Khazaka, Köln, Germany.

Formula 1. Test lotion used in clinical evaluations

Water (aqua) qs to 100.00%w/w
Glycerin 4.00
Steareth-2 3.00
Steareth-21 1.00
Methylparaben 0.20
Carbomer 0.15
Propylparaben 0.10
Triethanolamine 0.05
H1 0.00-1.00

Formula 2. Hand sanitizer used in clinical evaluations

Water (aqua) qs to 100.00% w/w
Alcohol denat. 62.00
PEG-6 Caprylic/Capric Glycerides 1.00
Glycerin 1.00
Acrylates/C10-30 Alkyl Acrylate Crosspolymer 0.25
Xanthan Gum 0.05
H1 0-1.00

Formula 3. Hydro-alcoholic nonwoven wipe formula used in clinical evaluations

Water (aqua) qs to 100.00% w/w
Alcohol Denat. 65.00
Glycerin 1.00
H1 0.00 or 1.00
H2 0.00 or 0.20

Formula 4. Non-alcohol based nonwoven wipe formula used in clinical evaluations

Water (aqua) qs to 100.00 % w/w
Alcohol Denat. 9.00
PEG-60 Lanolin 2.50
Disodium Caprylamphodipropionate 2.00
Quaternium-52 1.00
Potassium Sorbate 1.00
Glycerin 0.00-1.00
PEG-8 Dimethicone 1.00
Phenoxyethanol 0.55
Citric Acid 0.50
Benzethonium Chloride 0.30
Propylparaben 0.15
Ethylparaben 0.10
Methylparaben 0.10
Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Juice 0.05
Sodium EDTA 0.05
H1 0.00 or 0.50
H2 0.00 or 0.10

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