Palm-derived Dihydroxystearic Acid for Sensory and Technical Applications

Jul 1, 2009 | Contact Author | By: Rosnah Ismail and Hazimah A. Hassan, Malaysian Palm Oil Board; and Luigi Rigano, ISPE
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Title: Palm-derived Dihydroxystearic Acid for Sensory and Technical Applications
DHSAx coatingx shinex spreadingx bindingx thickeningx skin feelx
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Keywords: DHSA | coating | shine | spreading | binding | thickening | skin feel

Abstract: Dihydroxystearic acid (DHSA), derived from palm oil- or palm kernel oil-based oleic acid, offers interesting applications since its addition to oily phases and wax gels affects flow and spreading properties. Moreover, it interacts with the surfaces of pigments and fillers, improving color development as well as sensory attributes, as shown here.

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In Malaysia, palm kernel oil is obtained as a co-product of the production of palm oil with the general ratio of palm oil : palm kernel oil being 10:1.1. Due to both increased demand for oils and fats and to the success of natural trends in cosmetics, attempts are being made to increase the production of these oils by improving plantation practices and extraction methods and introducing new varieties of palms; in fact, one new variety of oil palm was introduced in 2002 that increased the yield of liquid oil and palm kernel oil to 30%.1

Palm kernel and coconut oil contain lauric and myristic triglycerides, as well as triglycerides of other fatty acids, including capric, caprylic, caproic, palmitic, stearic and oleic. With the increasing demand for lauric and myristic acids from the oleochemical industry as feedstock to produce surfactants, the oleochemicals industry typically splits the lauric oils, whereby the fatty acids of C10 and below are removed (stripped) and the C12-14 are distilled off. The by-product containing C16, C18 and C18:1 fatty acids is usually fractionated to yield C16-18 and C18:1 fractions.

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Table 1. Ratings of lipsticks containing DHSA

 Table 1. Ratings of lipsticks containing DHSA

Figure 1. 9,10-Dihydroxystearic acid

 Figure 1. 9,10-Dihydroxystearic acid

Figure 2. Sensory performance of tested lipsticks

 Figure 2. Sensory performance of tested lipsticks

Figure 3. Examples of differences in coating arrangements

 Figure 3. Examples of differences in coating arrangements

Figure 4. The surface of the granules is modified by the DHSA

 Figure 4. The surface of the granules is modified by the DHSA

Figure 5. Structure of octyl dihydroxystearate (ODHS)

 Figure 5. Structure of octyl dihydroxystearate (ODHS)

Figure 6. Reaction scheme of DHSA and ethylene oxide

 Figure 6. Reaction scheme of DHSA and ethylene oxide

Figure 7. Reaction scheme of DHSA and ethanolamide

 Figure 7. Reaction scheme of DHSA and ethanolamide

Figure 8. The condensation of DHSA to produce DHSA estolide

 Figure 8. The condensation of DHSA to produce DHSA estolide

 

Formula 1. DHSA-coated pigment blush

 Formula 1. DHSA-coated pigment blush

Formula 2. Mascara formulation

 Formula 2. Mascara formulation

Formula 3. Compact eye shadow

 Formula 3. Compact eye shadow

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