Clinical Relevance of Topical Active Delivery Systems in Cosmetics

May 1, 2009 | Contact Author | By: Haw-Yueh Thong, MD, MS, Dnational Taiwan University Hospital and Howard I. Maibach, MD, University of California
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Title: Clinical Relevance of Topical Active Delivery Systems in Cosmetics
deliveryx
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Keywords: delivery

Abstract: Depending on a drug or cosmetic ingredient’s intended target, topical delivery systems are broadly categorized as either transdermal drug or dermal drug/cosmetic. Transdermal drug delivery (TDD) is the controlled release of drugs through intact skin to obtain therapeutic levels systematically and to affect specified targets for specific purposes such as contraception, among others.

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Depending on a drug or cosmetic ingredient’s intended target, topical delivery systems are broadly categorized as either transdermal drug or dermal drug/cosmetic.1 Transdermal drug delivery (TDD) is the controlled release of drugs through intact skin to obtain therapeutic levels systematically and to affect specified targets for specific purposes such as contraception, among others. Dermal drug/active cosmetic ingredient delivery (DDD) is similar to TDD except that the specified target is the skin itself.1,2 Cosmetic ingredients, including those for antiaging, known as cosmeceuticals, presumably may have the same site of action. The cosmetic and/or transdermal route is indeed desirable by the industry but the success of DDD and cosmetic active ingredient delivery (CAID) technologies remains limited and faces many challenges, one of which is low skin permeability that hinders the development of DDD/CAID for macromolecules.

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Table 1. Examples of Chemical Penetration Enhancers5,23

Thong Table 1

Common penetration enhancement techniques and examples of chemical penetration enhancers are listed.

Common Penetration Enhancement Techniques3

Electrically Assisted Techniques
Ionotophoresis
Electroporation
Sonophoresis, photophoresis (ultrasound)

SC Bypassed or Removed
Microneedle array
Stratum corneum ablation (chemical peels, microdermabrasion, microscission, laser, etc.)

Vesicles and Particles
Liposomes and analogs (transferosomes,ethosomes, niosomes, etc.)
High velocity particles (PowderJect, Intraject, etc.)

Stratum Corneum Modification
Hydration
Chemical penetration enhancers (see Table 1)

Ten Steps to Percutaneous Absorption16

1. Vehicle release
2. Absorption kinetics a. Skin site of application b. Individual variation c. Skin condition d. Occlusion e. Drug concentration and surface area f. Multiple dose application
3. Excretion kinetics
4. Effective cellular and tissue distribution
5. Substantivity
6. Wash-and-rub resistance
7. Volatility 8. Binding
9. Anatomic pathways
10. Cutaneous metabolism

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