Formulating for Delivery From Elastomeric Nonwoven Substrates

Apr 1, 2011 | Contact Author | By: Stacy A. Mundschau, Scott W. Wenzel and Barbara J. Dvoracek, Kimberly-Clark Corp.
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Title: Formulating for Delivery From Elastomeric Nonwoven Substrates
nonwoven substratex deliveryx polarityx dielectric constantx siliconex
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Keywords: nonwoven substrate | delivery | polarity | dielectric constant | silicone

Abstract: When developing moisturizers intended for application via nonwoven substrates, formulators must consider the hydrophobic oils, the affinity of those oils to the substrate, the add-on to the substrate and the stability of the compositions on the substrate. With these considerations, moisturizing formulations were developed and coated onto laminated substrates whose moisturization efficacies were evaluated as described here.

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S Mundschau, SW Wenzel and BJ Dvoracek, Formulating for Delivery From Elastomeric Nonwoven Substrates, Cosm & Toil 124(4) 284 (2011)

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Historically, within the cosmetics industry, personal care articles such as gloves, socks and wraps have been used in conjunction with formulations to provide moisturization or to deliver actives to the skin. Traditionally, users apply a formulation to their hands or feet, then wrap the article over the treated regions. Alternatively, users slip on a pre-treated glove or sock, which then transfers the saturated formulation to the skin due to intimate skin contact. Unfortunately, such items typically have been made of a polymeric material, e.g. neoprene rubber, which lacks a clothlike appearance and feel. Oftentimes, such items also do not readily conform to the complex surfaces and contours of a foot or hand, or they cannot adequately hold the formulation, resulting in leakage of the product.

To address these shortcomings, a personal care article was recently developed1 comprising a three-layered laminated elastic composite with a structure that is generally described as a spunbond-film-spunbond (SFS) material. Spunbond is a strong, flexible material manufactured using wood pulp and continuous fibers of polypropylene that are thermally bonded to create a fabric.2 This material enables a biaxial stretch to ensure proper fit and general ease of use.

Specifically, the laminated substrate within the personal care article was made by sandwiching an elastomeric film between two 50% stretched spunbound nonwoven substrates. The elastomeric film layer included 96%w/w olefin elastomer resina and 4% w/w filler compound containing calcium carbonate blended with polypropylene and polypropylene random copolymers. The substrates were bonded with heat at specific points with the film layer in a stretched state and the resulting composite sample was allowed to retract to give a three-dimensional texture. This texture gave the product a clothlike appearance and helped create better contact between the skin and saturated substrate.1

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Table 1. Representative compounds and their dielectric constants

Table 1. Representative compounds and their dielectric constants

A representative subset of these compounds was then selected to cover a broad range of dielectric values. These compounds are listed in Table 1.

Table 2. Load values at 30% extension

Table 2. Load values at 30% extension

With these results in mind, a simple w/si emulsion was created (see Formula 2) and coated onto the same type of laminate structure as was tested with the individual oil or oil blends and tested in the same manner. Test results are shown in Table 2.

Figure 1. Clinical moisturization results of elastomeric sock and glove materials with Formula 1a

Figure 1. Clinical moisturization results of elastomeric sock and glove materials with Formula 1a

Figure 1 shows that after 15 min of sock and glove wear, the mean moisturization values were significantly higher, compared with baseline values 30 min (p < 0.0001) and 2 hr (p < 0.0001) after removal.

Figure 2. Effect of cosmetic ingredients on load values for the laminate at 30% extension

Figure 2. Effect of cosmetic ingredients on load values for the laminate at 30% extension

Note: Class I compounds include: mineral oil, jojoba oil, PPG-2 myristyl ether propionate, a blend of isodecyl neopentanoate (and) diisopropyl sebacate (and) lauryl lactate, PPG-3 benzyl ether myristate, diethylhexyl maleate, dibutyl adipate, diisopropyl adipate, butyl octisalate, lauryl lactate, phenethyl benzoate, PEG-5 methyl ether and propylene glycol. Class II compounds include: dimethicone 100 cst, PEG-3 dimethicone, PEG/PPG-20/23 dimethicone and PEG-8 dimethicone.

Figure 3. Transfer of cosmetic materials from elastomeric laminates

Figure 3. Transfer of cosmetic materials from elastomeric laminates

As shown by Figure 3, as the viscosity of the various grades of silicone oil increased, the amount of silicone oil transferred from the nonwoven substrate decreased.

Footnotes (CT1104 Mundschau)

a Vistamaxx 1100 olefin elastomer resin is manufactured by ExxonMobil.
b The Nova DPM 9003 device is manufactured by Nova Technology Corp.
c The Brookhaven BI-870 meter is manufactured by Brookhaven Instruments.
d The Synergie 200 Constant Rate of Extension tensile tester is manufactured by MTS systems; corporation gauge separation = 102 mm; crosshead speed = 508 mm/min; cycle elongation = 100%.
e Additional elastomeric resins tested included: Kraton (Kraton Polymers, LCC); EXACT 5361 (ExxonMobil); Vistamaxx (ExxonMobil); Catalloy KS527 (LyondellBassell); and Lycra (Invista).
f Scott is a registered trademark of Kimberly-Clark.

Formula 2. W/Si test emulsion

Formula 2. W/Si test emulsion

A simple w/si emulsion was created (see Formula 2) and coated onto the same type of laminate structure as was tested with the individual oil or oil blends and tested in the same manner.

Formula 1. Tested moisturizing formulations

Formula 1. Tested moisturizing formulations

Two moisturizing formulations were developed and coated onto the laminated substrate previously described to produce a moisturizing article to soothe and moisturize dry, cracked skin (see Formulas 1a–b).

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