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Polymers in Personal Care
By: Eric Abrutyn, TPC2 Advisors Ltd., Inc.
Posted: June 28, 2010, from the July 2010 issue of Cosmetics & Toiletries.
page 3 of 7
Crosspolymers: Polymers consisting of one or more multifunctional monomeric constituents. These include monomeric cross-linkers labeled as crosspolymer, e.g. acrylates crosspolymer, with glycol methacrylate as the cross-linker, as identified in the definition. Also included in this category are polymeric cross-linkers where the cross-linker is identified in the INCI name assignment; e.g., acrylates/VA crosspolymer, adipic acid/diethylene glycol/glycerin crosspolymer.
Poly-generic: Polymers consisting of four or more monomeric molecules; e.g. polyamides, polyacrylic(ate), polyester, polyurethane, polyquaternium, polyimide, etc. Within this category are polyacrylate-X, a copolymeric acrylate that has a primary acrylic component represented as part of the copolymer composition, and polyquaternium-X, a copolymeric quaternary ammonium salt that has a primary quaternium component as part of the copolymer composition.
Alkoxylated homopolymeric ethers: Including ethylene oxide, propylene oxide and aziridine. For example, PEG-X is the polyethylene glycol fraction, where X denotes the average number of moles of ethylene oxide; PPG-Y is the polypropylene glycol fraction, where Y denotes the average number of moles of propylene oxide; and PEI-Z is the polyethylene imine fraction, where Z denotes the average number of moles of ethylene imine (aziridine).
Mixed alkoxylate polymer ethers: Including the PEG-X PEG-Y block copolymer architectural structuring; the random PEG/PPG-X/Y copolymer architectural structuring; and carboxylic acid or carboxylate PEG and PPG polymers or their derivatives, in which one of the terminal primary alcoholic groups (CH2OH) has been oxidized to the carboxy group (-COOH); e.g. PEG-10 oxidized to carboxylic acid or PEG-10 carboxylic acid.
Natural-derived: Biological polymers built from naturally occurring monomers frequently of the carbohydrate type, including all the sugars and starches, gums, cellulose and protein type biological polymers. For example:
- Monosaccharides, or simple sugars, represented by an aldose (aldehyde) derivative or ketose (ketone) derivative, e.g. glucose;
- Disaccharides, ethers of two monosaccharides, including maltose with two glucose units, sucrose with one glucose and one fructose unit, and lactose with one glucose and one galactose unit;
- Polysaccharides, consisting of repeat units of monosaccharides or their derivatives held together by glycosidic bonds and generally occurring in nature; e.g. glycogen. These are classified as homopolysaccharides and heteropolysaccharides.