Inhibitory Effects of Phyllanthus emblica Tannins on Melanin Synthesis

Feb 1, 2007 | Contact Author | By: Ratan K Chaudhuri, PhD, Zoia Lascu and Germain Puccetti, PhD, EMD Chemicals Inc.,
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Title: Inhibitory Effects of Phyllanthus emblica Tannins on Melanin Synthesis
phyllanthus emblicax melanin inhibitorx tanninsx tyrosinasex peroxidasex iron chelatorx individual typology anglex antifrecklex
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Keywords: phyllanthus emblica | melanin inhibitor | tannins | tyrosinase | peroxidase | iron chelator | individual typology angle | antifreckle

Abstract: A standardized extract of Phyllanthus emblica (Syn. Emblica officinalis) fruits has been shown to be a safe and effective skin lightener for normal and hyperpigmented skin as demonstrated by several pilot clinical studies. This report shows melanin inhibitory activity for low molecular-weight hydrolyzable tannins.

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Pigmentation of the skin because of synthesis and dispersion of melanin in the epidermis has a great significance in the cosmetic industry and society in general. It is the key physiological defense against sun-induced damages such as sunburn, photoaging and photocarcinogenesis. Human skin color varies around the world. It ranges from a very dark brown in some African, Australian and Asian-Indian skin to a near pinkish-yellow among some northwest Europeans. Complexion coloration in humans primarily is regulated by the amount and type of melanin synthesized by the epidermal melanocyte. Melanocytes have specialized organelles termed melanosomes that contain several enzymes such as tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein-1 and tyrosinase-related protein-2, which catalyze the production of melanin.

Tyrosinase is the first and a rate-limiting step in melanogenesis. However, additional and equally contributing factors consist of efficient transfer of melanin from melanocytes to the neighboring keratinocytes and distribution and degradation of the transferred melanosomes by the recipient keratinocytes. The protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) and unidentified surface lectins and glycoproteins facilitate this transfer process. Skin-lightening agents (melanogenesis inhibitors) have been used widely to either lighten or even-toning the skin. Preparations in the European market are often used to treat age spots and freckles or to obtain even-toning effects, whereas the Asian market uses them to change or modify skin color.

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In-vitro melanin inhibitory activity

 In-vitro melanin inhibitory activity 

Results of clinical studies

 Results of clinical studies

Results of anti-freckle clinical study

 Results of anti-freckle clinical study

Figure 4: Sites of action

Figure 4: Sites of action

Chaudhuri-Inhibitory Effects Footnotes

*A part of this work was presented at the Society of Cosmetic Chemists (SCC) Annual Scientific Meeting held in May 2005, Las Vegas, USA. 

aEmblica is a product of EMD Chemicals/Merck KGaA.

bRonaCare MAP (INCI: Magnesium ascorbyl phosphate) is a product of EMD Chemicals/Merck KGaA.

cLicorice PTH (INCI: Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) root extract) is a product of Barnet Products.

bRonaCare MAP (INCI: Magnesium ascorbyl phosphate) is a product of EMD Chemicals/Merck KGaA.

cLicorice PTH (INCI: Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) root extract) is a product of Barnet Products.

dThe Chroma Meter CR-300 or the SmartProbe 400 can be used to measure skin color. The Chroma Meter CR-300 is a device of Konica Minolta, and the SmartProbe 400 is a device of IMS inc. 

eThinkPoint Software, v.5.01, for Windows was used.

fThe Chroma Meter CR-321 is a device from Konica Minolta.

Skin-lightening Lotion with 2% P. emblica

Skin-lightening Lotion with 2% P. emblica

Skin-lightening Lotion with 2% Hydroquinone

Skin-lightening Lotion with 2% Hydroquinone 

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