Today, cellulite is manifested in 80–90% of women but rarely in men. As is generally known, it appears as a modification of skin topography, evident by skin dimples. Cellulite appears regardless of a woman’s age, ethnic origin, body shape or weight; while weight gain can worsen its appearance, it can also be seen in slimmer women. Research has clearly shown that cellulite is a condition of increased adiposity as well as altered connective tissue. This cutaneous irregularity gives rise to structural changes in fatty layers and the surrounding matrix.1, 2
In women, the manifestation of cellulite is primarily caused by a combination of two factors: the lipidic deposit and the particular architecture of the subcutaneous tissue, where ﬁbrous branches contained in the surrounding matrix that are perpendicular to the skin’s surface separate voluminous lobules of lipids into rectangular sections. The peaks press against the dermis and push outward, forming adipose lobes that appear mattresslike, an effect often likened to an orange peel. In contrast, in men, the bands of fibrous branches in the subcutaneous tissue take a different course: they crisscross and form smaller, polygon-shaped lobules that even in cases of lipidic hyper-accumulation are inclined to protrude toward the dermis.1, 2
Concerning the extracellular matrix of both women and men, the rarefaction of subepidermal collagens and elastic ﬁbers are observed and a thick, hard collagen layer surrounds the adipocytes, constituting the micronodules of the cellulite. These phenomena all lead to a loss of elasticity and tonicity in the cutaneous layers. Thus, the skin appears much like a mattress and looks less smooth.
As research advances the development of ingredients that diminish this cutaneous modification, insight into adipocyte and extracellular matrix physiology has grown. In turn, ingredients have been developed to act directly on the destock of fats inside the adipose cells and also to improve the matrix properties.3 The present work describes a material designed to influence a new biological pathway involving the fasting-induced adipose factor (FIAF) adipokine.