Developing Sunscreens for the Preventive Treatment of Photodamage and Premature Aging

Feb 1, 2012 | Contact Author | By: Linda D. Rhein, PhD Fairleigh Dickinson University; and Anna Gripp ISP Corp.
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Title: Developing Sunscreens for the Preventive Treatment of Photodamage and Premature Aging
UVRx photodamagex UV filterx emulsionx stabilityx
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Keywords: UVR | photodamage | UV filter | emulsion | stability

Abstract: This article reviews the mechanisms of ultraviolet radiation insult to skin and explains the formulation of sunscreens to protect against this damage. Further, since the efficacy of combinations of UV filters will vary with formulation base, the formula vehicle and form are discussed, as well as an overview given of typical sunscreen efficacy tests performed prior to production.

Market Data

  • Awareness among consumers about the harmful effects of UV boosted sun care sales by 6.5% in 2012 in the United States.
  • Sun care marketers are diversifying their product offerings; a common trend emerging is to include tint.
  • Although spray-on sun care products are popular, there are rising concerns associated with the inhalation of nanoparticles.
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n technical terms, sunburn is an acute cutaneous inflammatory reaction that occurs usually between 1–24 hr after sun exposure.1, 2 The severity of the sunburn depends on two variables: the intensity or dose of light, and the length of exposure to the ultraviolet radiation (UVR). This reaction is characterized by different degrees of erythema frequently associated with pain, swelling and even the presence of blisters.2–4 Furthermore, exposure to excessive doses of solar radiation induces both acute and chronic damage to skin. However, these effects can be blocked by both UVA and UVB sunscreens. The present article therefore reviews mechanisms of UVR insult to the skin and provides sunscreen formulation suggestions for the development of sunscreen products to protect against this damage.

Photodamage and Skin Aging

Exposure to solar radiation causes sunburn, edema, premature aging expressed as wrinkles and fine lines, telangiectasia (spider veins), elastosis (leathery appearance), laxity, age spots (lentigos/freckles), seborrheic keratoses, actinic keratoses (precancerous scaly lesions) and skin cancers (basal and squamous cell carcinomas and melanoma).5–9 At the cellular level, solar radiation can produce adverse structural and functional changes in membrane proteins and lipids, chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA, and in immunocompetent factors.6–9 The source of these damaging effects is radiation in the ultraviolet range; specifically ultraviolet B (UVB), 290–320 nm; and ultraviolet A (UVA), 320–400 nm.5–9

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This content is adapted from an article in GCI Magazine. The original version can be found here.

 

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Table 1. US FDA–approved OTC sunscreens

Table 1. US FDA–approved OTC sunscreens41

Table 2. New UV filters not approved in the United States

Table 2. New UV filters not approved in the United States

Figure 1. Penetration power of radiation from different UV regions

Figure 1. Penetration power of radiation from different UV regions

Formula 1. Sunscreen foundation, a) initial and b) corrected

Formula 1. Sunscreen foundation, a) initial and b) corrected8

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