Cooking Chemistry and the Formulator: Sugar and Grains

Aug 1, 2009 | Contact Author | By: Eric Abrutyn, TPC2 Advisors Ltd., Inc.
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Title: Cooking Chemistry and the Formulator: Sugar and Grains
sugarx starchx saccharidesx carmelizationx proteinx
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Keywords: sugar | starch | saccharides | carmelization | protein

Abstract: This article is the third in a four-part series that highlights connections between cooking chemistry and personal care product development, including reactions that occur and why, and how to best utilize these reactions, for the benefit of formulators.

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Formulating personal care products calls for a diversity of ingredients, as does cooking. This article, the third in a four-part series, highlights connections between cooking chemistry and personal care product development, including reactions that occur and how to best utilize these reactions. The present article discusses sugar and grains; previous articles have covered dairy products including eggs and milk,1 and meat and poultry;2 the fourth will focus on flavors and spices of life.

The Science of Sugar 
Sugar chemistry includes natural and synthetic sugars. Natural sugars—marketed generically as honey, maple syrup, beet sugar, cane sugar, molasses, agave syrup and fructose (fruit sugar)—include saccharides and sugar alcohols. Synthetic sugars include aspartamea, sucraloseb, saccharin, acesulfame potassium, cyclomate and steviosidec.

Simple sugars are considered saccharides, which are classified as carbohydrates. In general, saccharide chemistry refers to the attachment of a hydroxyl group on a carbon atom, along with an aldehyde or ketone functional group within the ring structure of the molecule. Utilizing saccharide chemistry, molecules produced from living organisms or bio-molecules in sugar usually function to store and transport energy as well as provide structural integrity to the molecule (see Figure 1).

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Figure 1. Glucose structure

 Figure 1. Glucose structure

Figure 2. Sorbitol structure

 Figure 2. Sorbitol structure

Figure 3. Erythritol structure

 Figure 3. Erythritol structure

Flour Types

 Flour Types 

Abrutyn cooking footnotes

 a Nutrasweet is a registered trademark of Nutrasweet Property Holdings Inc.

b Splenda is a registered trademark of 
McNeil Nutritionals, LLC.
c Stevia is a registered trademark of 
United American Industries.

Formula 1. Typical roux

 Formula 1. Typical roux

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