Development of a Novel, Soothing Tissue Incorporating Phase-change Materials

Feb 1, 2013 | Contact Author | By: Jeffery R. Seidling; Scott W. Wenzel; Corey Cunningham, PhD; and Helen K. Moen, Kimberly-Clark Corp.
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Title: Development of a Novel, Soothing Tissue Incorporating Phase-change Materials
phase-change materialsx crystalline structurex soothingx coatingx tissuesx
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Keywords: phase-change materials | crystalline structure | soothing | coating | tissues

Abstract: Frequent and repetitive tissue use can lead to inflammation of the nasal area. While technologies were already marketed to help minimize and prevent further irritation, none had targeted the heat and redness associated with an already inflamed nose. This presented a market need but several formulating challenges. Described here are the steps taken to find a practical solution to these challenges.

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JR Seidling, SW Wenzel, C Cunningham and HK Moen, Development of a novel, soothing tissue incorporating phase-change materials, Cosm & Toil 128(2) 110-115 (Feb 2013)

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During normal, infrequent, everyday use, tissue products are inherently nonirritating. However, with allergies, a cold or the flu, frequent and repetitive use can lead to inflammation of the nasal area, including redness, swelling, pain and heat. Several finished products had already been made commercially available to help prevent or alleviate wiping-induced discomfort or to soothe consumers via aromatherapy; for example, softer, lotion-infused or mentholated tissues. While these technologies help to minimize and prevent further nasal irritation and comfort the consumer, none had targeted the heat and redness associated with an already inflamed nose.

This presented a market need for which the authors sought to develop a new, more soothing tissue that actively cools a hot and sore nose upon contact. However, accomplishing such a task posed several formulating challenges ranging from ingredient selection and practical application, to efficacy and safety testing, among others. Described herein are the steps taken to find a practical solution to this product challenge.

Performance Profile

Several technical criteria were first determined for the development of the product. The formulation needed to provide a noticeable cooling sensation upon use, as well as provide a soothing benefit greater than the market standard. It also had to be compatible with the existing manufacturing process for lotion facial tissue, exhibit a safety profile equal to the market-leading lotion facial tissues, and provide appropriate consumer aesthetics. Additional criteria included: maintaining tissue parameters, i.e., strength, absorbency, etc.; formulation stability on the tissue; and cost and packaging compatibility.

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Table 1. Composition of test formulations

Table 1. Composition of test formulations

PCMs were chosen, incorporated into test formulations, coated onto tissues, and evaluated by trained panelists following a proprietary soothing protocol for efficacy.

Table 2. Summary of DSC data

Table 2. Summary of DSC data

The melt point and latent heat of fusion of n-octadecane and stearyl heptanoate for the first and last cycles

Table 3. DSC analysis of representative diluent materials

Table 3. DSC analysis of representative diluent materials

Combinations of PCM with different fatty alcohols and fatty acids were made and their latent heat of fusion measured.

Table 4. Summary of trained panelist and exaggerated use studies

Table 4. Summary of trained panelist and exaggerated use studies

Samples F1 and F1CM displayed favorable cooling and after-feel characteristics whereas the trained panelists did not experience sufficient cooling with samples F2CM, F3CM and F1SW.

Figure 1. Magnification of tissue coated with a) n-octadecane and b) stearyl heptanoate

Figure 1. Magnification of tissue coated with a) <em>n</em>-octadecane and b) stearyl heptanoate

n-Octadecane formed an uneven coating on the tissue that consisted of either large crystals or agglomerates of crystals. Stearyl heptanoate formed a more even coating across the tissue without large or agglomerated crystals.

Figure 2. 20x magnification of a) stearyl alcohol and b) cetyl alcohol on a glass slide

Figure 2. 20x magnification of a) stearyl alcohol and b) cetyl alcohol on a glass slide

Both materials formed large crystalline networks, and it was hypothesized that these networks were causing the shiny, flaky appearance of these formulations.

Figure 3. 20x magnification of a) stearyl alcohol and b) stearyl alcohol with 5% polyethylene

Figure 3. 20x magnification of a) stearyl alcohol and b) stearyl alcohol with 5% polyethylene

The fatty alcohol crystalline network was significantly smaller and more uniform with the addition of polyethylene.

Figure 4. Soothing attribute of sample F1CM compared to market control products

Figure 4. Soothing attribute of sample F1CM compared to market control products

F1CM was judged as more soothing than either market control 1 or market control 2.

Footnotes

a The Q200 Differential Scanning Calorimeter
b Universal analysis NT software are products of TA Instruments.

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