Application/Category Sponsored by
a Slim-Excess (INCI: Water (aqua) (and) Butylene Glycol (and) Sodium Chloride (and) Hydrolyzed Carrageenan (and) Xanthan Gum) is a product and trademark of BASF Beauty Care Solutions.
bAdiposlim (INCI: Sorbitan Laurate (and) Lauroyl Proline) is a product and trademark of Seppic.
cAdipoless (INCI: Chenopodium Quinoa Seed Extract) is a product and trademark of Seppic.
dPhycoboreane (INCI: Laminaria Hyperborea Extract) is a product and trademark of BiotechMarine.
eRhodysterol (INCI: Gelidium Cartilagineum Extract) is a product and trademark of BiotechMarine.
f Cyberware Rapid 3D Digitizer is a product of Cyberware, Inc., Monterey, Calif., USA.
g BTC-2000 is a product and trademark of SRLI Technologies, Skin Research Laboratory, Inc., Nashville, Tenn., USA.
Here is how BASF tested the efficacy of its sulfo-carrabioses ingredient:5
Researchers evaluated the capacity of this active to trap spermine and spermidine in tubo. Spermine and spermidine are two positively charged molecules, so they bind with DNA, causing it to precipitate in solution. This is shown by an increase in the optical density (OD) in tubo, using spectrophotometry. A spermine and spermidine trap prevents the precipitation and causes a decrease in OD.
Researchers evaluated the effects of this active in inhibiting lipogenesis and inducing lipolysis in live adipocytes, compared to a negative control. Live adipocytes from human donors were obtained and grown in culture. To demonstrate lipogenesis, researchers used liquid scintillation to measure the incorporation of radioactive acetate into the adipocytes. To demonstrate lipolysis, an NEFA-C kit was used to assay the free fatty acids that were released by the adipocytes into the culture medium.
Researchers then evaluated pre-adipocyte proliferation in the presence of this active, compared to caffeine and negative control. Pre-adipocytes were obtained from human donors and grown in culture medium; after seven days of treatment, a Malassez cell was used to count the cells under optical microscope.
Researchers finally evaluated the slimming effect of this active, compared to a placebo. Instrumental data, clinical scores and self-evaluation questionnaires were obtained during and after an eight-week treatment period. Instrumental data included centimetric thigh circumference measurements and thigh volumes obtained using Fringe projection.
Here is how Seppic tested the efficacy of its blend of sorbitan laurate and lauroyl proline:8
Researchers evaluated the ingredient’s inhibition of the free fatty acid (FFA) content with adipocytes by showing that it inhibits the transformation of triglycerides into FFAs. The entry of non-metabolizable fluorescent fatty acid (5-methyl-BDY-dodecanoic acid) into mature adipocytes was measured with or without the ingredient and compared to both a positive (insulin) and negative control (cold).
Researchers evaluated the ingredient’s lipolytic activity. They showed that it causes the breakdown of triglycerides into FFAs, which is explained by an increase of cAMP, a key substance within the adipocytes for fat elimination. Researchers measured triglyceride lipolysis by assay of FFAs expelled from normal human adipocytes (obtained from male and female abdominal cosmetic surgery) with or without the ingredient and compared it to a positive control (caffeine).
Researchers evaluated the ingredient’s effect on cAMP levels in adipocytes. They measured the increase in cAMP levels in normal human adipocyes in the presence of the ingredient, compared to caffeine.
Finally, the ingredient’s ability to prevent the released FFAs from reforming into triglycerides was evaluated. By comparing the percentage increase in intracellular ATP relative to caffeine, the researchers demonstrated that, instead of reforming as triglycerides, the FFAs in the presence of the ingredient are recycled into energy as cellular ATP.
|Company||Year||US Patent (P) or Patent Application (PA)||Ingredient on which the patent is based|
|Beiersdorf||2006||PA 20060002885||Bioquinones and isoflavones|
|Bioderm Research||2004||PA 20040185069||Hydroxycitric acid derivatives|
|Bioderm Research||2004||PA 20040146539||Nutraceutical composition|
|Cognis||2004||PA 20040234480||Oligomeric proanthrocyanidens|
|L'Oreal||2008||PA 20080242645||Xanthine base|
|L'Oreal||2006||PA 20060134234||Xanthine base|
|L'Oreal||2005||P 6878367||Sapogenin and xanthine|
|Lab Expanscience||2006||PA 20060122246||Oxazoline|
|Lipo||2007||P 7306809||Optically activated particles|
|Lipo||2005||P 6946147||Optically activated particles|
|Lipo||2004||P 6808722||Optically activated particles|
|Lipo||2004||PA 0052742||Optically activated particles|
|Lipo||2003||P 6613359||Optically activated particles|
|Lipo||2003||P 6586013||Optically activated particles|
|Lipo||2003||PA 20030170189||Optically activated particles|
|Lipo||2003||PA 20030152537||Optically activated particles|
|Lipo||2003||PA 20030147821||Optically activated particles|
|Lipo||2003||PA 20030104022||Optically activated particles|
|Lipo||2002||PA 20020192260||Optically activated particles|
|Lipo||2002||PA 20020192248||Optically activated particles|
|Parfums Christian Dior||2002||P 6447782||Skeletonema algae|
|Pentapharm||2005||P 6953583||Conjugated linoleic acid|
|Pierre Fabre||2007||P 7192613||Allium sativum bulb absolutes|
|Pierre Fabre||2005||P 6852343||Garlic bulb extracts|
|Pierre Fabre||2004||PA 20040258777||Allium sativum bulb absolutes|
|Seppic||2008||PA 20080200534||Lauryl proline, ester of anhydrohexitol and of aliphatic carboxylic acid|
|Vincience||2006||PA 20060013794||Peptides with sequences Arg-Gly-Ser|
In August of last year, the Wall Street Journal Health Blog reported that there was "not much high-quality evidence" for the effectiveness of cellulite treatments;1 for example, massage treatments produce swelling that reduces dimpling, but the dimpling reduction is only temporary. In addition, lasers or energy sources that are claimed to affect the fat cells under the skin have not been proven to have any long-term effect, according to the report. "There's nothing that has been shown in any objective way to create improvement for cellulite," Robert A. Weiss, then president-elect of the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, told the Wall Street Journal.
What was he thinking? Where was the discussion of the huge range2 of anticellulite products and professional methods available to treat cellulite--from topical products and oral regimens, to garments? How could he ignore the body of technical knowledge generated by the suppliers of anticellulite ingredients, and the manufacturers of anticellulite products?
Nevertheless, Weiss gets some support from Enzo Berardesca at the San Gallicano Dermatological Institute in Rome. In 2006, Berardesca admitted that the efficacy of cellulite treatments is often debated. He wrote, "The evaluation of cellulite is based principally on clinical observation, thigh circumference measurements, body mass index and thermography, but for testing anticellulite products, more objective and noninvasive methods of evaluation are requested."2
Both Weiss and Berardesca are asking for objective proof that anticellulite products work. This "Bench & Beyond" column examines selected patents, journal articles, product promotion pieces and one dissertation--all from the last six years--for signs indicating that objective proof is on the way.
"Cellulite is currently considered to be â€œan endocrine metabolic microcirculatory disorder that causes interstitial matrix alterations and structural changes in subcutaneous adipose tissue," according to Distante et al.,3 who then go on to describe four competing theories for how that disorder originates: a circulatory defect, hypertrophy of the fat lobule, a physiological event, and numerous biochemical and metabolic alterations. The cause of cellulite is still a matter of debate.
Normally, the vascular supply to the adipose tissue is characterized by a fine and regular mesh of blood and lymph vessels that provides oxygen and the necessary nutrition and allows the removal of toxic substances. The onset of cellulite formation brings numerous histological changes, as described in the following stages.3,4
1. Even before any cosmetic problems are seen, capillary networks are lost in the dermal region as a result of a breakdown in blood vessel integrity (lipoedema), which swells the adipose tissue. Fluid retention (lipolymphoedema) and clumping of engorged fat cells occur in the subcutaneous tissue.
2. Minimal visual signs (i.e., slight skin surface lumpiness) appear on the thighs. Heterogeneity of blood vessels affects microcirculation. The aggregation of adipose cells and the growth of collagen fibrils hamper blood circulation, leading to circulatory stasis.
3. Pinching of the skin exacerbates the visual appearance of cellulite. Dermal metabolism is reduced due to vascular deterioration. Dermal thinning occurs in response to minimized protein synthesis and deterioration. Adipose cells isolated from nutrition and waste removal swell into micronodules surrounded by a stiff collagen layer (fibrosis).
Related Topics: Skin Care